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Weather based crop insurance in India

Author

Listed:
  • Clarke,Daniel Jonathan
  • Mahul,Olivier
  • Rao,Kolli Nageswara
  • Verma,Niraj

Abstract

The weather index insurance market in India is the world's largest, having transitioned from small-scale and scattered pilots to a large-scale weather based crop insurance program covering more than 9 million farmers. This paper provides a critical overview of this market, including a review of indices used for insurance purposes and a description and analysis of common approaches to design and ratemaking. Products should be designed based on sound agronomic principles and further investments are needed both in quantifying the level of basis risk in existing products, and developing enhanced products with lower basis risk. In addition to pure weather indexed products, hybrid products that combine both area yield and weather indices seem promising, with the potential to combine the strengths of the individual indices. A portfolio approach to pricing products, such as that offered by Empirical Bayes Credibility Theory, can be significantly more efficient than the standalone pricing approaches typically employed in the Indian market. Legislation for index insurance products, including consumer protection legislation, should be further enhanced, for example by requiring disclosure of claim payments that each product would have made in the last ten years. The market structure for weather based crop insurance products could better reward long-term development of improved product designs through product standardization, longer term contracts, or separating the roles of product design and delivery.

Suggested Citation

  • Clarke,Daniel Jonathan & Mahul,Olivier & Rao,Kolli Nageswara & Verma,Niraj, 2012. "Weather based crop insurance in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5985, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5985
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel J. Clarke, 2016. "A Theory of Rational Demand for Index Insurance," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 283-306, February.
    2. Shawn Cole & Xavier Gine & Jeremy Tobacman & Petia Topalova & Robert Townsend & James Vickery, 2013. "Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 104-135, January.
    3. Hill, Ruth Vargas & Robles, Miguel, 2011. "Flexible insurance for heterogeneous farmers: Results from a small-scale pilot in Ethiopia," IFPRI discussion papers 1092, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Xavier Giné & Robert Townsend & James Vickery, 2008. "Patterns of Rainfall Insurance Participation in Rural India," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 539-566, October.
    5. Gine, Xavier & Menand, Lev & Townsend, Robert & Vickery, James, 2010. "Microinsurance : a case study of the Indian rainfall index insurance market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5459, The World Bank.
    6. Clarke,Daniel Jonathan & Mahul,Olivier & Verma,Niraj, 2012. "Improving farmers'access to agricultural insurance in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5987, The World Bank.
    7. World Bank, 2011. "Enhancing Crop Insurance in India," World Bank Other Operational Studies 2748, The World Bank.
    8. Clarke,Daniel Jonathan & Mahul,Olivier & Verma,Niraj, 2012. "Index based crop insurance product design and ratemaking : the case of modified NAIS in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5986, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michael R. CARTER & Alain de JANVRY & Elisabeth SADOULET & Alexandros SARRIS, 2014. "Index-based weather insurance for developing countries: A review of evidence and a set of propositions for up-scaling," Working Papers P111, FERDI.
    2. Petraud, Jean & Boucher, Stephen & Carter, Michael, 2015. "Competing theories of risk preferences and the demand for crop insurance: Experimental evidence from Peru," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211383, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Hill, Ruth Vargas & Robles, Miguel & Ceballos, Francisco, 2013. "Demand for weather hedges in India: An empirical exploration of theoretical predictions:," IFPRI discussion papers 1280, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Aditya Kusuma & Bethanna Jackson & Ilan Noy, 2018. "A viable and cost-effective weather index insurance for rice in Indonesia," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance Theory, Springer;International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics (The Geneva Association), vol. 43(2), pages 186-218, September.
    5. Shawn Cole & Xavier Gine & Jeremy Tobacman & Petia Topalova & Robert Townsend & James Vickery, 2013. "Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 104-135, January.
    6. Ward, Patrick S. & Spielman, David J. & Ortega, David L., 2015. "Demand for Complementary Financial and Technological Tools for Managing Drought Risk," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211909, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Carter, Michael R. & Cheng, Lan & Sarris, Alexandros, 2016. "Where and how index insurance can boost the adoption of improved agricultural technologies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 59-71.
    8. repec:oup:rfinst:v:30:y:2017:i:6:p:1935-1970. is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Negi, Digvijay S., 2018. "Tail-dependent Rainfall Risk and Demand for Index based Crop Insurance," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274481, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    10. Ward, Patrick S. & Spielman, David J. & Ortega, David L. & Kumar, Neha & Minocha, Sumedha, 2015. "Demand for Complementary Financial and Technological Tools for Managing Drought Risk: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Bangladesh," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 204882, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Shawn Cole & Xavier Giné & James Vickery, 2017. "How Does Risk Management Influence Production Decisions? Evidence from a Field Experiment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(6), pages 1935-1970.
    12. Michler, Jeffrey D. & Viens, Frederi & Shively, Gerald, 2015. "Risk, Agricultural Production, and Weahter Index Insurance in Village South Asia," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212460, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    13. Susannah Fisher & Swenja Surminski, 2012. "The roles of public and private actors in the governance of adaptation: the case of agricultural insurance in India," GRI Working Papers 89, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    14. repec:fpr:ifpric:9780896292499-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Fisher, Susannah & Surminski, Swenja, 2012. "The roles of public and private actors in the governance of adaptation: the case of agricultural insurance in India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 46400, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Clarke, Danielle & Das, Narayan C. & de Nicola, Francesca & Hill, Ruth Vargas & Kumar, Neha & Mehta, Parendi, 2012. "The value of customized insurance for farmers in rural Bangladesh:," IFPRI discussion papers 1202, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    17. Sibiko, Kenneth W. & Veettil, Prakashan C. & Qaim, Matin, 2016. "Small Farmers’ Preferences for Weather Index Insurance: Insights from Kenya," 2016 Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 246399, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    18. Clarke,Daniel Jonathan & Mahul,Olivier & Verma,Niraj, 2012. "Improving farmers'access to agricultural insurance in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5987, The World Bank.
    19. Sibiko, Kenneth W. & Veettil, Prakashan C. & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Small Farmers' Preferences for Weather Index Insurance: Insights from Kenya," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 256213, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    20. Bhattacharya, Haimanti & Osgood, Daniel E., 2014. "Weather Index Insurance and Common Property Resources," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 0, pages 1-13.
    21. Chen, Huang, 2015. "Expectations, Index Qualities and Basis Risks in Explaining Farmers' Pessimism in Purchasing Weather Index Insurance," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211461, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    22. Bhattacharya, Haimanti & Osgood, Daniel E., 2014. "Weather Index Insurance and Common Property Resources," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 43(3), pages 1-13, December.

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    Keywords

    Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress; Insurance&Risk Mitigation; Hazard Risk Management; Climate Change Economics; Debt Markets;

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