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Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux États-Unis

  • Hélène Périvier

    (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Économiques)

Cet article décrit les transformations de la position des femmes sur le marché du travail aux Etats-Unis tant sous l'angle quantitatif que qualitatif, en s'appuyant sur la littérature existante. Les tendances sont mises en perspectives avec celles qu'ont connues la France et la Suède. Globalement, les inégalités entre les sexes dans la sphère marchande se sont fortement résorbées sur une longue période. Mais en moyenne, elles restent plus marquées qu'en Suède et qu'en France, même si les Américaines les plus qualifiées bénéficient d'un traitement plus favorable du point de vue du déroulement de carrière que leurs consoeurs françaises et suédoises. Deux traits marquants ressortent de cette étude. Tout d'abord la réduction moyenne des inégalités entre les sexes aux Etats-Unis s'est appuyée sur l'explosion des inégalités sociales à partir des années 1980. Ensuite, cette réduction des inégalités entre les sexes ne vaut pas pour toutes les femmes : pour les moins qualifiées les améliorations sont modestes, voire inexistantes sur certains points, et donc parallèlement, les inégalités entre les femmes qualifiées et celles n'ayant pas de diplôme ont augmenté.

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Paper provided by Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) in its series Documents de Travail de l'OFCE with number 2008-12.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:0812
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