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Time Allocation between Work and Family over the Life-Cycle: A Comparative Gender Analysis of Italy, France, Sweden and the United States

Author

Listed:
  • Anxo, Dominique

    () (Växjö University)

  • Flood, Lennart

    () (University of Gothenburg)

  • Mencarini, Letizia

    () (University of Florence)

  • Pailhé, Ariane

    () (INED, France)

  • Solaz, Anne

    () (INED, France)

  • Tanturri, Maria Letizia

    () (University of Pavia)

Abstract

This article analyses the extent to which changes in household composition over the life course affect the gender division of labour. It identifies and analyses cross-country disparities between France, Italy, Sweden and United States, using most recent data available from the Time Use National Surveys. We focus on gender differences in the allocation of time between market work, domestic work and leisure over the life-cycle. In order to map the life-cycle, we distinguish between nine key cross-country comparable life stages according to age and family structure such as exiting parental home, union formation, parenthood, and retiring from work. By using appropriate regression techniques (Tobit with selection, Tobit and OLS), we show large discrepancies in the gender division of labour at the different life stages. This gender gap exists in all countries at any stage of the life course, but is usually smaller at the two ends of the age distribution, and larger with parenthood. Beyond social norms, the impact of parenthood on time allocation varies across countries, being smaller in those where work-family balance policies are more effective and traditionally well-established.

Suggested Citation

  • Anxo, Dominique & Flood, Lennart & Mencarini, Letizia & Pailhé, Ariane & Solaz, Anne & Tanturri, Maria Letizia, 2007. "Time Allocation between Work and Family over the Life-Cycle: A Comparative Gender Analysis of Italy, France, Sweden and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 3193, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3193
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2002. "Timing, togetherness and time windfalls," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(4), pages 601-623.
    2. Peter McDonald, 2000. "Gender Equity in Theories of Fertility Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 26(3), pages 427-439.
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    Cited by:

    1. Melinda Mills & Katia Begall & Letizia Mencarini & Maria Letizia Tanturri, 2008. "Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 18(1), pages 1-26, February.
    2. Hans G. Bloemen & Silvia Pasqua & Elena G. F. Stancanelli, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis Of The Time Allocation Of Italian Couples: Are Italian Men Irresponsive?," CHILD Working Papers wp18_08, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    3. Ann Barbara Bauer & Reiner Eichenberger, 2017. "Endogenous aging: How statutory retirement age drives human and social capital," CREMA Working Paper Series 2017-02, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    4. Olivier Thévenon & Angela Luci, 2012. "Reconciling Work, Family and Child Outcomes: What Implications for Family Support Policies?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 31(6), pages 855-882, December.
    5. Hélène Périvier, 2009. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux États-Unis. Évolutions mises en perspective avec celles de la France et de la Suède," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(1), pages 49-84.
    6. Richiardi Matteo & Poggi Ambra, 2012. "Imputing Individual Effects in Dynamic Microsimulation Models. An application of the Rank Method," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201213, University of Turin.
    7. Kotsadam, Andreas, 2009. "Effects of informal eldercare on female labor supply in different European welfare states," Working Papers in Economics 353, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    8. Pau Baizan & Bruno Arpino & Carlos Eric Delclòs, 2016. "The Effect of Gender Policies on Fertility: The Moderating Role of Education and Normative Context," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 32(1), pages 1-30, February.
    9. Emilio Zagheni & Marina Zannella, 2013. "The life cycle dimension of time transfers in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(35), pages 937-948, November.
    10. Gianna C. Giannelli & Lucia Mangiavacchi & Luca Piccoli, 2012. "GDP and the value of family caretaking: how much does Europe care?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(16), pages 2111-2131, June.
    11. Silvia Pasqua & Anna Laura Mancini, 2012. "Asymmetries and interdependencies in time use between Italian parents," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(32), pages 4153-4171, November.
    12. Hélène Périvier, 2008. "L'impact de la Maternité sur l'Activité des Femmes aux Etats-Unis," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 51(2/3), pages 221-242.
    13. repec:eee:jbrese:v:82:y:2018:i:c:p:46-55 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Ambra Poggi & Matteo Richiardi, 2012. "Accounting for Unobserved Heterogeneity in Discrete-time, Discrete-choice Dynamic Microsimulation Models. An application to Labor Supply and Household Formation in Italy," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 117, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    15. Matteo Richiardi & Ambra Poggi, 2014. "Imputing Individual Effects in Dynamic Microsimulation Models. An application to household formation and labour market participation in Italy," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 7(2), pages 3-39.
    16. Katz, Katarina & Sand, Lena, 2008. "Household specialisation and gender equality in transition. Paid and unpaid work of women and men in Soviet and post-Soviet Taganrog," Working Papers in Economics 307, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    17. Denys Dukhovnov & Emilio Zagheni, 2015. "Who Takes Care of Whom in the United States? Time Transfers by Age and Sex," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 41(2), pages 183-206, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    time use; gender; life-cycle; paid and unpaid work;

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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