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Single Mother Work and Poverty under Welfare Reform: Are Policy Impacts Different in Rural Areas?

Author

Listed:
  • Bruce Weber

    () (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Oregon State University)

  • Mark Edwards

    (Oregon State University)

  • Greg Duncan

    (Northwestern State University)

Abstract

During the 1990s, employment increased and poverty declined for single mothers in rural and urban areas. Our results suggest that, holding demographics constant, changes in welfare and social policy during this decade contributed to employment increases--but not to poverty reduction--for both rural and urban single mothers. If rural and urban demographics had been the same, the policy changes would have increased employment and reduced poverty more in rural areas. Without demographic controls, however, estimated policy impacts were no better in rural places. This suggests that rural demographic changes limited the policy impact on rural single-mother work and poverty.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruce Weber & Mark Edwards & Greg Duncan, 2004. "Single Mother Work and Poverty under Welfare Reform: Are Policy Impacts Different in Rural Areas?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 31-51, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:30:y:2004:i:1:p:31-51
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    File URL: http://web.holycross.edu/RePEc/eej/Archive/Volume30/V30N1P31_51.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Davis, Elizabeth E. & Weber, Bruce A., 2002. "How Much Does Local Job Growth Improve Employment Outcomes of the Rural Working Poor?," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 32(2), pages 255-274, Summer/Fa.
    2. Jill L. Findeis & Leif Jensen, 1998. "Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas: Implications for Poverty in a Changing Policy Environment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1000-1007.
    3. Schoeni, R.F. & Blank, R.M., 2000. "What Has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure," Papers 00-02, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
    4. Bruce A. Weber & Greg J. Duncan & Leslie A. Whitener (ed.), 2002. "Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number rdwr, November.
    5. Bradford F. Mills, 2001. "Unemployment Duration in Non-Metropolitan Labor Markets," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 174-192.
    6. Rebecca M. Blank, 2002. "Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1105-1166, December.
    7. Dan Lichter & Leif Jensen, 2000. "Rural America in Transition: Poverty and Welfare at the Turn of the 21st Century," JCPR Working Papers 187, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bruce Weber & Leif Jensen & Kathleen Miller & Jane Mosley & Monica Fisher, 2005. "A Critical Review of Rural Poverty Literature: Is There Truly a Rural Effect?," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 28(4), pages 381-414, October.
    2. Hélène Périvier, 2009. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux États-Unis. Évolutions mises en perspective avec celles de la France et de la Suède," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(1), pages 49-84.
    3. Weber, Bruce A., . "Rural Poverty: Why Should States Care and What Can State Policy Do?," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association.
    4. Weber, Bruce A. & Jensen, Leif, 2004. "Poverty And Place: A Critical Review Of Rural Poverty Literature," Working Papers 18913, Oregon State University, Rural Poverty Research Center (RPRC).
    5. Hélène Périvier, 2008. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux Etats-Unis," Sciences Po publications 2008-12, Sciences Po.
    6. Gundersen, Craig, 2005. "Are The Effects Of The Macroeconomy And Social Policies On Poverty Different In Rural America?," Working Papers 18909, Oregon State University, Rural Poverty Research Center (RPRC).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Demographics; Mothers; Policy; Single Mother; Welfare;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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