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Les femmes sur le marché du travail aux États-Unis - Une mise en perspective avec la France et la Suède

Aux États-Unis, comme dans beaucoup de pays développés, la participation des femmes au marché du travail a fortement augmenté depuis plus de 4 décennies. Cette augmentation constante a compensé le déclin continu de la participation des hommes, ce qui a permis d’alimenter la croissance économique et de satisfaire la demande des entreprises. Le modèle américain contemporain est fondé sur le concept d’adultes actifs et autonomes. Ce principe a pu être appliqué aux hommes comme aux femmes grâce à un arsenal législatif antidiscrimination puissant, largement mis à contribution depuis la fin des années 1960, et à des politiques volontaristes d’actions positives, venues renforcer le mouvement d’insertion des femmes dans l’emploi. Enfin, un ensemble de politiques sociales et fiscales, en vigueur depuis la fin des années 1980, a permis d’insérer sur le marché du travail des mères isolées peu qualifiées traditionnellement inactives. Il vise explicitement à encourager tout individu à travailler. La prise en charge des jeunes enfants est assurée par le marché. En effet, le coût du travail non qualifié est relativement bas, et les inégalités de revenus entre les ménages suffisamment importantes pour rendre accessible l’offre de services divers en particulier celui de la garde des enfants (...).

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Paper provided by Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) in its series Documents de Travail de l'OFCE with number 2007-07.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:0707
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