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L'impact des incitations financières au travail sur les comportements individuels : une estimation pour le cas français

  • Thomas Piketty

[fre] L'impact des incitations financières au travail sur les comportements individuels : une estimation pour le cas français . par Thomas Piketty . Rendre les emplois à bas salaires financièrement plus attractifs pour les personnes privées d'emploi aurait-il un effet positif significatif sur le niveau d'emploi en France ? À partir des données individuelles des enquêtes Emploi conduites par l'Insee de 1982 à 1997 (environ 150000 observations par an), nous utilisons le fait que différentes réformes du système français de transferts sociaux entre 1982 et 1996 (création du RMI, création et extension de 1' APE,..) ont modifié les incitations financières au travail de façon différente suivant le nombre d'enfants à charge, la situation familiale, etc., pour étudier si le différentiel de taux d'emploi entre ces différentes catégories de personnes s'est ajusté à ces nouvelles incitations, toutes autres choses (observables) égales par ailleurs. Cette méthodologie, utilisée récemment pour l'étude de YETTC américain et lors d'expériences naturelles au Canada, permet en principe une estimation non biaisée de l'élasticité des comportements d'activité et de recherche d'emploi vis-à-vis des incitations financières. . Les résultats obtenus suggèrent des élasticités relativement élevées pour les femmes (avec ou sans enfants à charge). Par contre, les données utilisées ne permettent pas de mettre en évidence un effet significatif des incitations financières au travail sur la transition non emploi - emploi pour les hommes. [eng] Impact of Financial Incentives to Work on Individual Behaviour: An Estimation for France . by Thomas Piketty . Does making low-paid jobs more financially attractive for the jobless have a significant positive impact on employment levels in France? Various reforms introduced in France's social transfers system between 1982 and 1996 have changed the financial incentives to work for various categories of population, depending on the number of dependent children, family structure and other factors. We use individual data from the INSEE employment surveys conducted from 1982 to 1997 (involving some 150,000 observations each year) to see if the new incentives introduced by these reforms, such as the income support benefit (RMI) and first job allowance (APE), have led to adjustments in the differential employment levels of these various population groups, all other (observable) things being equal. This methodology has recently been used for the American Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Survey and in natural experiments in Canada. In principle, it enables us to make an unbiased estimate of the elasticity of labour force participation and job-seeking behaviour in relation to financial incentives. . The findings suggest that elasticity is relatively greater for women (with or without dependent children). On the other hand, the data used do not enable us to show any significant effect of financial incentives to work on men's transition from non-employment to employment.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ecop.1998.5895
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_132_1_5895/ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_132_1_5895.pdf?mode=light
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 132 (1998)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-35

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1998_num_132_1_5895
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1998.5895
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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  1. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1995. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Working Papers 5158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. François Bourguignon & Thierry Magnac, 1990. "Labor Supply and Taxation in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 358-389.
  3. David Card & Philip Robins, 1996. "Do Financial Incentives Encourage Welfare Recipients to Work? Early Findings from the Canadian Self Sufficiency Project," Working Papers 738, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
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