IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/exs/wpaper/19-072.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Building Knowledge-Based Economies in Africa: A Systematic Review of Policies and Strategies

Author

Listed:
  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé/Cameroon)

  • Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    (Pretoria, South Africa)

Abstract

Compared to other regions of the world, Africa is lagging in its drive toward knowledge-based economies. This study systematically reviews the literature in order to highlight the policies and strategies with which African countries can accelerate their current drive towards building knowledge-based economies. These are discussed in terms of three pillars of the World Bank’s knowledge economy framework. They are the indices for: (i) education and skilled population, (ii) information and communication technology and (iii) economic incentives and institutional regime.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Building Knowledge-Based Economies in Africa: A Systematic Review of Policies and Strategies," Working Papers 19/072, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
  • Handle: RePEc:exs:wpaper:19/072
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.excas.org/RePEc/exs/exs-wpaper/Building-Knowledge-Based-Economies-in-Africa.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2019
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2018. "Educational quality thresholds in the diffusion of knowledge with mobile phones for inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 164-172.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a systematic review," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, October.
    4. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "The Comparative Economics of Knowledge Economy in Africa: Policy Benchmarks, Syndromes, and Implications," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(2), pages 596-637, June.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    7. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The role of governance in mobile phones for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 55, pages 1-13.
    8. Boateng, Agyenim & Asongu, Simplice & Akamavi, Raphael & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Information asymmetry and market power in the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 69-83.
    9. Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Erreygers, Guido & Cassimon, Danny, 2019. "Inequality, ICT and financial access in Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 169-184.
    10. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    11. Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Advancement: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/005, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    12. Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology Advancement: Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 86(2), pages 231-246, June.
    13. Voxi Heinrich Amavilah, 2009. "Knowledge of African countries: production and value of doctoral dissertations," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 977-989.
    14. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Young Rural Women Participation in the E-Wallet Programme and Usage Intensity of Modern Agricultural Inputs in Nigeria," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/062, African Governance and Development Institute..
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Recent Financial Advances in Information Technology For Inclusive Development: A Systematic Review," Working Papers 2 4009, Office Of The Chief Economist, Development Bank of Nigeria.
    16. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2017. "The Role of Knowledge Economy in African Business," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1189-1228, December.
    17. Simplice Asongu & Agyenim Boateng, 2018. "Introduction to Special Issue: Mobile Technologies and Inclusive Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 297-301, July.
    18. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2019. "Governance and social media in African countries: An empirical investigation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 411-425.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu, Phd & Joseph Nnanna D.B.A, . "Ict In Reducing Information Asymmmetry For Financial Sector Competition," Journal of Economic and Sustainable Growth 1, Office Of The Chief Economist, Development Bank of Nigeria.
    20. Amavilah, Voxi & Asongu, Simplice A. & Andrés, Antonio R., 2017. "Effects of globalization on peace and stability: Implications for governance and the knowledge economy of African countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 91-103.
    21. Simplice Asongu, 2013. "How Would Population Growth Affect Investment in the Future? Asymmetric Panel Causality Evidence for Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(1), pages 14-29.
    22. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "Information asymmetry, financialization, and financial access," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 297-315, December.
    23. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Rational Asymmetric Development, Piketty and Poverty in Africa," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 13(2), pages 221-246, December.
    24. Antonio Andrés & Simplice Asongu & Voxi Amavilah, 2015. "The Impact of Formal Institutions on Knowledge Economy," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 6(4), pages 1034-1062, December.
    25. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    26. Dugassa Tessema Gerba, 2012. "Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Ethiopia," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 258-277, September.
    27. Kusi, Baah Aye & Agbloyor, Elikplimi Komla & Ansah-Adu, Kwadjo & Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa, 2017. "Bank credit risk and credit information sharing in Africa: Does credit information sharing institutions and context matter?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1123-1136.
    28. Joshua Yindenaba Abor & Mohammed Amidu & Haruna Issahaku, 2018. "Mobile Telephony, Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 430-453, July.
    29. Thierry PENARD & Nicolas POUSSING & Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA, 2012. "Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(86), pages 65-83, 2nd quart.
    30. Nuno Garoupa & Mohamed Jellal, 2007. "Further notes on information, corruption, and optimal law enforcement," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 59-69, February.
    31. J. R. Minkoua Nzie & J. C. Bidogeza & Nkwah Azinwi Ngum, 2018. "Mobile Phone Use, Transaction Costs, and Price: Evidence from Rural Vegetable Farmers in Cameroon," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 323-342, July.
    32. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Basic formal education quality, information technology, and inclusive human development in sub‐Saharan Africa," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(3), pages 419-428, May.
    33. Jellal, Mohamed & Bouzahzah, Mohamed, 2013. "Transparency and corruption: an optimal taxation policy," European Economic Letters, European Economics Letters Group, vol. 2(2), pages 66-70.
    34. Joseph Ikechukwu Uduji & Elda N. Okolo‐Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Corporate social responsibility and the role of rural women in sustainable agricultural development in sub‐Saharan Africa: Evidence from the Niger Delta in Nigeria," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 692-703, July.
    35. Muto, Megumi & Yamano, Takashi, 2009. "The Impact of Mobile Phone Coverage Expansion on Market Participation: Panel Data Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1887-1896, December.
    36. World Bank, 2007. "Building Knowledge Economies : Advanced Strategies for Development," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6853.
    37. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Does corporate social responsibility (CSR) impact on development of women in small-scale fisheries of sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from coastal communities of Niger Delta in Nigeria," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/059, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    38. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "ICT, information asymmetry and market power in African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 518-531.
    39. Thouraya Triki & Ousman Gajigo, 2014. "Credit Bureaus and Registration and Access to Finance: New Evidence from 42 African Countries," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 16(2), pages 73-101.
    40. Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "Foreign Aid, Education and Lifelong Learning in Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 10(1), pages 126-146, March.
    41. Rui Gama & Cristina Barros & Ricardo Fernandes, 2018. "Science Policy, R&D and Knowledge in Portugal: an Application of Social Network Analysis," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(2), pages 329-358, June.
    42. Antonio Andrés & Simplice Asongu, 2013. "Fighting Software Piracy: Which Governance Tools Matter in Africa?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(3), pages 667-682, December.
    43. Mishra, Vishal & Singh Bisht, Shailendra, 2013. "Mobile banking in a developing economy: A customer-centric model for policy formulation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 503-514.
    44. Kirui, Oliver K. & Okello, Julius J. & Nyikal, Rose A. & Njiraini, Georgina W., 2013. "Impact of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya," Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, Humboldt-Universitaat zu Berlin, vol. 52(2), pages 1-22, May.
    45. Imen Mohamed Sghaier, 2018. "Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth in North African Countries," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 21(69), pages 53-72, September.
    46. Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "The Role of Information Sharing in Modulating the Effect of Financial Access on Inequality," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 317-338, July.
    47. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Does corporate social responsibility (CSR) impact on development of women in small-scale fisheries of sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from coastal communities of Niger Delta in Nigeria," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/059, African Governance and Development Institute..
    48. Mr. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2006/115, International Monetary Fund.
    49. Abolfazl Shahabadi & Morteza Nemati & Seyed Ehsan Hosseinidoust, 2017. "The Effect of Knowledge Economy Factors on Income Inequality in the Selected Islamic Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1174-1188, December.
    50. Ratna Vadra, 2017. "Knowledge Economy in BRICS: a Case of South Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1229-1240, December.
    51. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives in Nigeria and Rural Women Livestock Keepers in Oil Host Communities," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/060, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    52. Muto, Megumi, 2009. "The impacts of mobile phone coverage expansion and personal networks on migration: evidence from Uganda," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51898, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    53. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives in Nigeria and Rural Women Livestock Keepers in Oil Host Communities," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/060, African Governance and Development Institute..
    54. Letiche, John M., 2006. "Positive economic incentives: New behavioral economics and successful economic transitions," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 775-796, November.
    55. T. D. Stanley, 2001. "Wheat from Chaff: Meta-analysis as Quantitative Literature Review," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(3), pages 131-150, Summer.
    56. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Young Rural Women Participation in the E-Wallet Programme and Usage Intensity of Modern Agricultural Inputs in Nigeria," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/061, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    57. Haruna Issahaku & Benjamin Musah Abu & Paul Kwame Nkegbe, 2018. "Does the Use of Mobile Phones by Smallholder Maize Farmers Affect Productivity in Ghana?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 302-322, July.
    58. Mr. Kangni R Kpodar & Mr. Dhaneshwar Ghura & Mr. Raju J Singh, 2009. "Financial Deepening in the CFA Franc Zone: The Role of Institutions," IMF Working Papers 2009/113, International Monetary Fund.
    59. Barth, James R. & Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Song, Frank M., 2009. "Corruption in bank lending to firms: Cross-country micro evidence on the beneficial role of competition and information sharing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 361-388, March.
    60. Kangni Kpodar & Raju Jan Singh & Dhaneshwar Ghura, 2009. "Financial Deepening in the CFA Franc Zone: The Role of Institutions," Post-Print hal-00450079, HAL.
    61. Baah Aye Kusi & Mary Opoku†Mensah, 2018. "Does credit information sharing affect funding cost of banks? Evidence from African banks," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(1), pages 19-28, January.
    62. Nahed Zghidi & Imen Mohamed Sghaier & Zouheir Abida, 2018. "Remittances, Institutions, and Economic Growth in North African Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(3), pages 804-821, September.
    63. Aparna Gosavi, 2018. "Can Mobile Money Help Firms Mitigate the Problem of Access to Finance in Eastern sub-Saharan Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 343-360, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & John Kuada, 2020. "Building knowledge economies in Africa: an introduction," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 1-6, January.
    2. Atiase, Victor Yawo & Kolade, Oluwaseun & Liedong, Tahiru Azaaviele, 2020. "The emergence and strategy of tech hubs in Africa: Implications for knowledge production and value creation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    3. Olatunji A. Shobande & Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "Has Knowledge Improved Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria and South Africa," Working Papers 21/059, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 162-177.
    2. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Inequality and gender economic inclusion: The moderating role of financial access in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 173-185.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The Mobile Phone, Information Sharing, and Financial Sector Development in Africa: a Quantile Regression Approach," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(3), pages 1234-1269, September.
    4. Asongu, Simplice A. & Orim, Stella-Maris I. & Nting, Rexon T., 2019. "Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 380-389.
    5. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2017. "Building Knowledge Economies in Africa: A Survey of Policies and Strategies," MPRA Paper 81701, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 12(3), pages 1367-1398, September.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Enhancing ICT for insurance in Africa," Review of Development Finance Journal, Chartered Institute of Development Finance, vol. 9(2), pages 16-27.
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Inequality and gender inclusion: Minimum ICT policy thresholds for promoting female employment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    10. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Foreign direct investment, information technology and economic growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    11. Simplice A. Asongu, 0. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 0, pages 1-32.
    12. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Paul Acha-Anyi, 2019. "Information technology, governance and insurance in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Responsibility Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 16(8), pages 1253-1273, September.
    13. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Enhancing ICT for Quality Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 93531, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Rahman, Mushfiqur & Nnanna, Joseph & Haffar, Mohamed, 2020. "Enhancing information technology for value added across economic sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa✰," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Inequality thresholds, governance and gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 94-114, January.
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    17. Asongu, Simplice A & Odhiambo, Nicholas M, 2020. "Finance,governance and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 26638, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
    18. Asongu, Simplice & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2020. "Inclusive Education for Inclusive Economic Participation: the Financial Access Channel," MPRA Paper 103151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Remittances, the diffusion of information and industrialisation in Africa," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 98-117, January.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2019. "The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1271-1297, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Knowledge economy; Development; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:exs:wpaper:19/072. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://excas.org/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Anutechia Asongu Simplice (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://excas.org/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.