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Uncertainty, flexible labour relations and R&D expenditure

  • Marco Di Cintio
  • Emanuele Grassi

This paper examines the effects of uncertainty and flexible labour contracts on the Research and Development (R&D) expenditure. Using a panel of Italian manufacturing firms, we find a hump-shaped relationship between workforce flexibility and R&D outlays. Moreover, as predicted by the real options theory, our results suggest that product market uncertainty reduces R&D efforts and that flexible labour contracts countervail the adverse effect of uncertainty on R&D.

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File URL: http://www.eeri.eu/documents/wp/EERI_RP_2013_13.pdf
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Paper provided by Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels in its series EERI Research Paper Series with number EERI RP 2013/13.

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Date of creation: 13 Dec 2013
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Handle: RePEc:eei:rpaper:eeri_rp_2013_13
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  4. Dirk Czarnitzki & Andrew Toole, 2007. "Business R&D and the Interplay of R&D Subsidies and Product Market Uncertainty," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 169-181, November.
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  8. Nick Bloom & John Van Reenen & Stephen Bond, 2006. "Uncertainty and Investment Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 12383, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  11. Roberto M. Samaniego, 2006. "Employment Protection and High-Tech Aversion," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(2), pages 224-241, April.
  12. Saint-Paul, G., 1995. "Employment Protection, International Specialization, and Innovation," DELTA Working Papers 95-31, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  13. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Toole, Andrew A., 2006. "Patent protection, market uncertainty, and R&D investment," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  14. Tito Boeri & Pietro Garibaldi, 2007. "Two Tier Reforms of Employment Protection: A Honeymoon Effect?," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 37, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
  15. Hopenhayn, Hugo & Rogerson, Richard, 1993. "Job Turnover and Policy Evaluation: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(5), pages 915-38, October.
  16. Alan Carruth & Andy Dickerson & Andrew Henley, 1998. "What Do We Know About Investment Under Uncertainty?," Studies in Economics 9804, School of Economics, University of Kent.
  17. Episcopos, Athanasios, 1995. "Evidence on the relationship between uncertainty and irreversible investment," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 41-52.
  18. Federico Lucidi & Alfred Kleinknecht, 2010. "Little innovation, many jobs: An econometric analysis of the Italian labour productivity crisis," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 525-546.
  19. Haibo Zhou & Ronald Dekker & Alfred Kleinknecht, 2011. "Flexible labor and innovation performance: evidence from longitudinal firm-level data," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 941-968, June.
  20. Spyros Arvanitis, 2005. "Modes of labor flexibility at firm level: Are there any implications for performance and innovation? Evidence for the Swiss economy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(6), pages 993-1016, December.
  21. Nicholas Bloom, 2007. "Uncertainty and the Dynamics of R&D," NBER Working Papers 12841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Bulan, Laarni T., 2005. "Real options, irreversible investment and firm uncertainty: New evidence from U.S. firms," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 255-279.
  23. Dolado, Juan J. & Stucchi, Rodolfo, 2008. "Do Temporary Contracts Affect TFP? Evidence from Spanish Manufacturing Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 3832, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  24. Barbosa, Natália & Faria, Ana Paula, 2011. "Innovation across Europe: How important are institutional differences?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 1157-1169.
  25. Amaia Altuzarra & Felipe Serrano, 2010. "Firms’ Innovation Activity and Numerical Flexibility," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(2), pages 327-339, January.
  26. Goel, Rajeev K. & Ram, Rati, 2001. "Irreversibility of R&D investment and the adverse effect of uncertainty: Evidence from the OECD countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 287-291, May.
  27. Michie, Jonathan & Sheehan, Maura, 1999. "HRM Practices, R&D Expenditure and Innovative Investment: Evidence from the UK's 1990 Workplace Industrial Relations Survey (WIRS)," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 211-34, June.
  28. Ulph, Alistair & Ulph, David, 1998. "Labour markets, bargaining and innovation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 931-939, May.
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