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The effect of the manager gender on SMEs export and import decisions: Evidence for Spain

Author

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  • Alfonso Expósito

    ((University of Málaga, Spain) ORCID number: 0000-0002-9248-4879)

  • Amparo Sanchis-Llopis

    ((University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain) ORCID number: 0000-0002-0872-7859)

  • Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis

    ((University of Valencia and ERICES, Spain) ORCID number: 0000-0001-9664-4668)

Abstract

Using a sample of 1,405 Spanish businesses, this paper explores the role of manager gender in SMEs’ decisions to get involved in exporting and importing activities. We borrow insights from international entrepreneurship theories and feminist theories to set testable hypotheses regarding how managerial gender and entrepreneurial orientation (proactiveness, risk-taking and innovativeness) may influence SMEs export and import propensities. Using a bivariate probit model and controlling for other managerial and business characteristics, results indicate that there are not significant differences in exporting propensities between male- and female-led businesses. However, female-led SMEs show a lower importing propensity, as compared to male-led counterparts. In addition, the three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (proactiveness, risk-taking and innovativeness) are important drivers for participating in overseas markets, and do not depend upon the manager gender. The role of managers gender in SMEs importing activities has not been investigated so far, and this is the main contribution of our research.

Suggested Citation

  • Alfonso Expósito & Amparo Sanchis-Llopis & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis, 2021. "The effect of the manager gender on SMEs export and import decisions: Evidence for Spain," Working Papers 2115, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
  • Handle: RePEc:eec:wpaper:2115
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Manager gender; entrepreneurial orientation; small and medium-enterprises; exporting and importing; bivariate probit model.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics

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