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The impact of trade openness on regional inequality : the cases of India and Brazil

  • Marie Daumal

    ()

    (Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, UMR DIAL)

Regional inequalities are large in India and Brazil and represent a development challenge. This paper aims to determine whether regional disparities are linked to countries’ trade openness. An annual indicator of regional inequalities is constructed for India over the period 1980-2003 and for Brazil over 1985-2003. Results from time series regressions show that Brazil’s trade openness contributes to the reduction in regional inequalities in Brazil. The opposite result is found for India. India’s trade openness is an important factor aggravating income inequality among Indian states. In both countries, the inflows of foreign direct investment are found to increase regional disparities. _________________________________ Dans les années 90, les inégalités régionales ont fortement augment´e en Inde. Les inégalités entre Etats brésiliens sont importantes et constituent un problème politique majeur pour la fédération brésilienne. En 1991, ces deux pays se sont progressivement ouverts au commerce international. L’objectif du papier est de déterminer s’il existe ou non un lien entre les inégalités régionales et l’ouverture commerciale dans les cas de l’Inde et du Brésil. J’ai construit un indicateur, l’index Gini, qui est une mesure des inégalités régionales, sur la période 1980-2004 pour l’Inde et sur la période 1985-2004 pour le Brésil. Cet indicateur des inégalités régionales est ensuite régressé sur divers déterminants dont l’ouverture commerciale des pays, en utilisant la technique des séries temporelles et des modèles vectoriels à correction d’erreur. Je trouve que l’ouverture commerciale de l’Inde a fortement aggravé les inégalités existant entre l’Inde du Nord, de plus en plus pauvre, et l’Inde du Sud de plus en plus riche. Or ces inégalités régionales croissantes sont maintenant une source de tension et de conflits au sein de la fédération indienne, les Etats du Sud ne voulant plus “payer” pour le Nord du pays. Au contraire, l’ouverture du Brésil semble avoir entraîné une diminution des inégalités entre Etats brésiliens.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2010/04.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201004
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  1. F. Zilibotti & P. Aghion & R. Burgess, 2004. "The Unequal Effects of Trade Liberalization: Theory and Evidence from India," 2004 Meeting Papers 40, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Henrik Hansen & John Rand, 2006. "On the Causal Links Between FDI and Growth in Developing Countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 21-41, 01.
  3. Wei, Shang-Jin & Wu, Yi, 2001. "Globalization and Inequality: Evidence from within China," CEPR Discussion Papers 3088, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Schwert, G William, 1989. "Tests for Unit Roots: A Monte Carlo Investigation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 7(2), pages 147-59, April.
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  8. Okada, Aya & Siddharthan, N.S., 2007. "Industrial Clusters in India: Evidence from Automobile Clusters in Chennai and the National Capital Region," IDE Discussion Papers 103, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  9. Peter Nunnenkamp & Rudi Stracke, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment In Post-Reform India: Likely To Work Wonders For Regional Development?," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 55-84, December.
  10. Marcela González Rivas, 2007. "The effects of trade openness on regional inequality in Mexico," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 545-561, September.
  11. Andres Rodriguez-Pose & Nicholas Gill, 2004. "How does trade affect regional inequalities?," ERSA conference papers ersa04p478, European Regional Science Association.
  12. Paluzie i Hernandez, Elisenda, 1999. "Trade policy and regional inequalities," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa231, European Regional Science Association.
  13. Fiess, Norbert M. & Verner, Dorte, 2003. "Migration and human capital in Brazil during the 1990s," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3093, The World Bank.
  14. Matthieu Crozet & Pamina Koenig-Soubeyran, 2004. "Trade liberalization and the internal geography of countries," Chapters, in: Multinational Firms’ Location and the New Economic Geography, chapter 5 Edward Elgar.
  15. J. Vernon Henderson, 1996. "Ways to Think about Urban Concentration: Neoclassical Urban Systems versus the New Economic Geography," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 19(1-2), pages 31-36, April.
  16. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
  17. Joaquim Bento Ferreira-Filho & Mark Horridge, 2004. "Economic Integration, Poverty and Regional Inequality in Brazil," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-149, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
  18. Carlos R. Azzoni, 2001. "Economic growth and regional income inequality in Brazil," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 133-152.
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