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The impact of trade openness on regional inequality : the cases of India and Brazil

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  • Marie Daumal

    () (Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, UMR DIAL)

Abstract

Regional inequalities are large in India and Brazil and represent a development challenge. This paper aims to determine whether regional disparities are linked to countries’ trade openness. An annual indicator of regional inequalities is constructed for India over the period 1980-2003 and for Brazil over 1985-2003. Results from time series regressions show that Brazil’s trade openness contributes to the reduction in regional inequalities in Brazil. The opposite result is found for India. India’s trade openness is an important factor aggravating income inequality among Indian states. In both countries, the inflows of foreign direct investment are found to increase regional disparities. _________________________________ Dans les années 90, les inégalités régionales ont fortement augment´e en Inde. Les inégalités entre Etats brésiliens sont importantes et constituent un problème politique majeur pour la fédération brésilienne. En 1991, ces deux pays se sont progressivement ouverts au commerce international. L’objectif du papier est de déterminer s’il existe ou non un lien entre les inégalités régionales et l’ouverture commerciale dans les cas de l’Inde et du Brésil. J’ai construit un indicateur, l’index Gini, qui est une mesure des inégalités régionales, sur la période 1980-2004 pour l’Inde et sur la période 1985-2004 pour le Brésil. Cet indicateur des inégalités régionales est ensuite régressé sur divers déterminants dont l’ouverture commerciale des pays, en utilisant la technique des séries temporelles et des modèles vectoriels à correction d’erreur. Je trouve que l’ouverture commerciale de l’Inde a fortement aggravé les inégalités existant entre l’Inde du Nord, de plus en plus pauvre, et l’Inde du Sud de plus en plus riche. Or ces inégalités régionales croissantes sont maintenant une source de tension et de conflits au sein de la fédération indienne, les Etats du Sud ne voulant plus “payer” pour le Nord du pays. Au contraire, l’ouverture du Brésil semble avoir entraîné une diminution des inégalités entre Etats brésiliens.

Suggested Citation

  • Marie Daumal, 2010. "The impact of trade openness on regional inequality : the cases of India and Brazil," Working Papers DT/2010/04, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201004
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    Cited by:

    1. Ahmed, Azleen Rosemy & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "What is the link between financial development and income inequality? evidence from Malaysia," MPRA Paper 79416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Abhimanyu Dadu & Namrata Gulati, 2014. "Inequality, neighborhoods and variation in prices," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2014-001, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    3. Namrata Gulati & Abhimanyu Dadu, 2014. "Inequality, Neighbourhoods and Variation in Prices," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(3), pages 1463-1484.
    4. Carolina Guevara, 2015. "The effect of trade on agglomeration within regions," Working Papers 1530, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    5. G. C. Lim & Paul D. McNelis, 2014. "Income Inequality, Trade and Financial Openness," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2014n07, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    6. repec:rjr:romjef:v::y:2017:i:1:p:75-97 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Maria Cecilia J. LUSTOSA & Yves-André FAURE, 2013. "Changements institutionnels et politiques publiques au Brésil\r\nAux sources de la réduction des inégalités sociales, de la pauvreté et des disparités régionales," Cahiers du GREThA 2013-25, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    8. Carolina Guevara, 2015. "The effect of trade on agglomeration within regions," Working Papers halshs-01233389, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade openness; regional inequality; India; Brazil; time series regression; Ouverture commerciale; inégalités régionales; Inde; Brésil; séries temporelles.;

    JEL classification:

    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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