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Exports, Growth and Causality:An Application of Co-Integration and Error-correction Modelling

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  • Khan, Ashfaque Hasan
  • Hasan, Lubna
  • Malik, Afia

Abstract

This paper investigates the direction of causation between exports growth and economic growth. This issue has been widely investigated in the past in the context of the suitability of export promotion versus import substitution as development strategies. The traditional practice has been to utilise the Granger causality test to examine the direction of causality. Recent developments in econometric techniques have highlighted at least two shortcomings in the application of the standard Granger causality test. These include the stationary properties of the series and the co-integration of variables included in the analysis. The present paper, while investigating the direction of causation between exports growth and economic growth and using the Granger causality test, has taken into account these two shortcomings. The paper finds a stable, long-run two-way relationship between exports (as well as manufactured exports) and output, but a one- way stable relationship between output and primary exports. Furthermore, the paper also finds a bi-directional causation between exports (both primary and manufactured) growth and economic growth. Based on these findings, it is recommended that export promotion policy with a major emphasis on manufactured exports must be vigorously pursued to achieve a higher rate of economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Khan, Ashfaque Hasan & Hasan, Lubna & Malik, Afia, 1995. "Exports, Growth and Causality:An Application of Co-Integration and Error-correction Modelling," MPRA Paper 7352, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:7352
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Saima Siddiqui & Sameena Zehra & Sadia Majeed & Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2008. "Export-Led Growth Hypothesis in Pakistan: A Reinvestigation Using the Bounds Test," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 59-80, Jul-Dec.
    2. Mohammad Akbar & Zareen F. Naqvi, 2001. "External Market Conditions, Competitiveness, Diversification, and Pakistan’s Export Performance," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 871-884.
    3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Pervaz Azim & Khalil Ahmad, 2011. "Exports-Led Growth Hypothesis in Pakistan: Further Evidence," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(3), pages 182-197.
    4. Qazi Masood Ahmed & Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt & Shaista Alam, 2000. "Economic Growth, Export, and External Debt Causality: The Case of Asian Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 591-608.
    5. Nasim Shah Shirazi & Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, 2005. "Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Further Econometric Evidence From South Asia," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 43(4), pages 472-488, December.
    6. Aurangzeb, 2003. "Trade, Investment and Growth Nexus in Pakistan: An Application of Cointegration and Multivariate Causality Test," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 8(1), pages 119-137, Jan-June.
    7. Musleh-Ud Din, 2004. "Exports, Imports, and Economic Growth in South Asia: Evidence Using a Multivariate Time-series Framework," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(2), pages 105-124.
    8. Nasim Shah Shirazi & Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, 2004. "Exports and Economic Growth Nexus: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(4), pages 563-581.
    9. Muhammad AFZAl, 2012. "Do Structural Transformation And Trade Liberalisation Cause Economic Growth In Pakistan?," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 12(1).
    10. Muhammad Arshad Khan & Abdul Qayyum, 2007. "Trade Liberalisation, Financial Development and Economic Growth," Trade Working Papers 22204, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    11. Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Shaista Alam & Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exports, and Domestic Output in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 715-723.
    12. Muhammad Afzal & Sheikh Shoaib Ahmed & Muhammad Waseem Shahzad, 2019. "Impact of Merchandize and Services Trade on Economic Growth of Pakistan," Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Economics and Finance, Michael Laurence, vol. 1(2), pages 30-36.
    13. Ashfaque H. Khan, 1998. "The Experience of Trade Liberalisation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 661-685.
    14. Nadeem Ul Haque & Musleh-ud Din & Lubna Hasan, 2007. "Research at PIDE: Key Messages," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2007:2.
    15. Muhammad Arshad Khan & Ayaz Ahmed, 2012. "Modelling Trade, Investment, Growth and Liberalisation: Case Study of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(4), pages 187-208.
    16. Ejaz Ghani & Musleh ud Din & Afia Malik, 2017. "An Assessment of Pakistan's Export Performance and the Way Forward," Working Papers id:12173, eSocialSciences.
    17. Afia Malik & Ejaz Ghani & Musleh ud Din, 2017. "An Assessment of Pakistan’s Export Performance and the Way Forward," PIDE-Working Papers 2017:153, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exports; Growth;

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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