Export-Led Growth Hypothesis in Pakistan: A Reinvestigation Using the Bounds Test
Trade is presumed to act as a catalyst to economic growth. This paper reinvestigates the export-led growth hypothesis in Pakistan by using annual time series data on exports, imports, terms of trade, and the labor force participation rate as explanatory variables and gross domestic product (GDP) as the dependent variable for the period 1971-2005. The study uses the more comprehensive and recent bounds test or autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) proposed by Pesaran et al (2001) to examine the existence of short-run and long-runrelationships between exports and economic growth, which is crucial indesigning policy to enhance trade-related potential in Pakistan. The results indicate that exports, labor force, and imports have a positive effect on growth, while the terms of trade has a negative effect. The proxy for trade liberalization has a positive impact on economic growth. Finally, the chief finding of this study is that the hypothesis of export-led growth in the Pakistan economy is supported in both the short and long run. Economicgrowth in Pakistan is accompanied by fluctuations in exports and imports both in the short and long run, but the labor force participation rate has a negative effect only in the short run. The terms of trade has the same effect in the short and long run.
Volume (Year): 13 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (Jul-Dec)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Intersection Main Boulevard Phase VI DHA and Burki Road, Lahore|
Phone: (92-42) 6560939
Web page: http://www.lahoreschoolofeconomics.edu.pk/EconomicsJournal/LJEIntro.aspx
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Y. & Smith, R.J., 1999.
"Bounds Testing Approaches to the Analysis of Long-run Relationships,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9907, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Mohammad Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J Smith, 1999. "Bounds Testing Approaches to the Analysis of Long Run Relationships," ESE Discussion Papers 46, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
- Jang Jin, 2002. "Exports and growth: is the export-led growth hypothesis valid for provincial economies?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 63-76.
- Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1990. "Comparative Advantage and Long-run Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 796-815, September.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1988. "Comparative Advantage And Long-Run Growth," Papers 39-88, Tel Aviv.
- Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1989. "Comparative Advantage and Long-Run Growth," NBER Working Papers 2809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Subrata Ghatak & Stephen Price, 1997. "Export composition and economic growth: Cointegration and causality evidence for India," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(3), pages 538-553, September.
- Heller, Peter S. & Porter, Richard C., 1978. "Exports and growth : An empirical re-investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 191-193, June.
- Shamshad Begum & Abul Shamsuddin, 1998. "Exports and economic growth in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 89-114.
- Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Bohl, Martin T., 2000. "German monetary unification and the stability of the German M3 money demand function," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 203-208, February.
- Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Sengupta, Jati K, 1991. "Rapid Growth in NICs in Asia: Tests of New Growth Theory for Korea," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 561-579.
- Jung, Woo S. & Marshall, Peyton J., 1985. "Exports, growth and causality in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-12.
- Ashfaque H. Khan & Afia Malik & Lubna Hasan, 1995. "Exports, Growth and Causality: An Application of Co-integration and Error-correction Modelling," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 34(4), pages 1001-1012.
- Khan, Ashfaque Hasan & Hasan, Lubna & Malik, Afia, 1995. "Exports, Growth and Causality:An Application of Co-Integration and Error-correction Modelling," MPRA Paper 7352, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Yousif Khalifa Al-Yousif, 1997. "Exports and economic growth:some empirical evidence from the Arab Gulf countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(6), pages 693-697.
- Chow, Peter C. Y., 1987. "Causality between export growth and industrial development : Empirial evidence from the NICs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 55-63, June.
- Bardsen, G., 1988. "On The Estimation Of Long Run Coefficients In Error Correction Models," Papers 03-88, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
- Satya Paul & Kabir Chowdhury, 1995. "Export-led growth hypothesis: some empirical testing," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(6), pages 177-179.
- Nasim Shah Shirazi & Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, 2005. "Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Further Econometric Evidence From South Asia," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 43(4), pages 472-488, December.
- Imam Alam & Rahim Quazi, 2003. "Determinants of Capital Flight: An econometric case study of Bangladesh," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 85-103.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Kravis, Irving B, 1970. "Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: Similarities between the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 80(323), pages 850-872, December.
- Jordan Shan & Fiona Sun, 1998. "On the export-led growth hypothesis: the econometric evidence from China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(8), pages 1055-1065.
- Balassa, Bela, 1978. "Exports and economic growth : Further evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 181-189, June.
- Jim Love & Ramesh Chandra, 2005. "Testing export-led growth in South Asia," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(2), pages 132-145, May.
- Tyler, William G., 1981. "Growth and export expansion in developing countries : Some empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 121-130, August.
- Pereira, Alfredo M & Xu, Zhenhui, 2000. "Export Growth and Domestic Performance," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 60-73, February.
- Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Mohtadi, Hamid & Shabsigh, Ghiath, 1991. "Exports, growth and causality in LDCs : A re-examination," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 405-415, October.
- Michaely, Michael, 1977. "Exports and growth : An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 49-53, February.
- Selami Sezgin & Julide Yildirim, 2002. "The Demand for Turkish Defence Expenditure," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 121-128.
- Greenaway, David & Sapsford, David, 1994. "Exports, growth, and liberalization: An evaluation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 165-186, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:13:y:2008:i:2:p:59-80. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shahid Salahuddin)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.