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Banking Competition and Stability: The Role of Leverage

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  • Freixas, Xavier
  • Ma, Kebin

Abstract

This paper reexamines the classical issue of the possible trade-o s between banking competition and financial stability by highlighting different types of risk and the role of leverage. By means of a simple model we show that competition can affect portfolio risk, insolvency risk, liquidity risk, and systemic risk differently. The effect depends crucially on banks' liability structure, on whether banks are financed by insured retail deposits or by uninsured wholesale debts, and on whether the indebtness is exogenous or endogenous. In particular we suggest that, while in a classical originate-to-hold banking industry competition might increase financial stability, the opposite can be true for an originate-to-distribute banking industry of a larger fraction of market short-term funding. This leads us to revisit the existing empirical literature using a more precise classification of risk. Our theoretical model therefore helps to clarify a number of apparently contradictory empirical results and proposes new ways to analyze the impact of banking competition on financial stability.

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  • Freixas, Xavier & Ma, Kebin, 2014. "Banking Competition and Stability: The Role of Leverage," CEPR Discussion Papers 10121, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:10121
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    Cited by:

    1. Fiordelisi, Franco & Mare, Davide Salvatore & Molyneux, Philip, 2015. "State-Aid, Stability and Competition in European Banking," MPRA Paper 67473, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Robert M. Bushman & Bradley E. Hendricks & Christopher D. Williams, 2016. "Bank Competition: Measurement, Decision‐Making, and Risk‐Taking," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 777-826, June.
    3. Elena Carletti & Agnese Leonello, 2019. "Credit Market Competition and Liquidity Crises," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 23(5), pages 855-892.
    4. Davis, E. Philip & Karim, Dilruba & Noel, Dennison, 2020. "The bank capital-competition-risk nexus – A global perspective," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    5. de-Ramon, Sebastian & Francis, William B & Straughan, Michael, 2020. "The link between bank competition and risk in the United Kingdom: two views for policymaking," Bank of England working papers 885, Bank of England.
    6. Jooyong Jun & Eunjung Yeo, 2021. "Central bank digital currency, loan supply, and bank failure risk: a microeconomic approach," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 1-22, December.
    7. Demian Macedo & Victor Troster, 2021. "Liquidity shocks and interbank market failures: the role of deposit flights, non-performing loans, and competition," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 16(4), pages 705-746, October.
    8. E Philip Davis & Dilruba Karim & Dennison Noel, 2019. "Bank Leverage Ratios, Risk and Competition - An Investigation Using Individual Bank Data," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 499, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
    9. Shamena Anwar & Patrick Bayer & Randi Hjalmarsson, 2019. "A Jury of Her Peers: The Impact of the First Female Jurors on Criminal Convictions," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 129(618), pages 603-650.
    10. Ahnert, Toni & Martinez-Miera, David, 2021. "Bank Runs, Bank Competition and Opacity," VfS Annual Conference 2021 (Virtual Conference): Climate Economics 242348, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    11. Faia, Ester & Laffitte, Sebastien & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P., 2019. "Foreign expansion, competition and bank risk," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 179-199.
    12. Alfredo Martín Oliver & Sonia Ruano Pardo & Vicente Salas Fumás, 2014. "Productivity and welfare: an application to the Spanish banking industry," Working Papers 1426, Banco de España.
    13. Marcella Lucchetta, 2017. "Banking competition and welfare," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 31-53, February.
    14. Carbajal-De-Nova, Carolina & Venegas-Martínez, Francisco, 2019. "On the paradigm shift of asset pricing models, before and after the global financial crisis: a literature review," Panorama Económico, Escuela Superior de Economía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, vol. 15(29), pages 7-38, Primer se.
    15. Brei, Michael & Jacolin, Luc & Noah, Alphonse, 2020. "Credit risk and bank competition in Sub-Saharan Africa," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(C).
    16. Joseph Olorunfemi Akande & Farai Kwenda, 2017. "P-SVAR Analysis of Stability in Sub-Saharan Africa Commercial Banks," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 67(3), pages 49-78, july-Sept.
    17. Altunbas, Yener & Marques-Ibanez, David & van Leuvensteijn, Michiel & Zhao, Tianshu, 2022. "Market power and bank systemic risk: Role of securitization and bank capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    18. Eunjung Yeo & Jooyong Jun, 2020. "Peer-to-Peer Lending and Bank Risks: A Closer Look," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(15), pages 1-17, July.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    banking competition; financial stability; leverage;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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