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A quantitative framework for commercial property and its relationship to the analysis of the financial stability of the corporate sector


  • John Whitley
  • Richard Windram


In this paper a quantitative framework for analysis of the UK commercial property sector is developed, and the possible implications explored for the financial stability of this sector, and for the corporate sector as a whole. There is little previous empirical literature. But where there is, models have either studied particular markets or have developed single-equation approaches. Lack of suitable data has been a major impediment. A model of the real estate sector is constructed using econometric analysis of rental values and bank lending, supplemented by a calibrated model of the remainder of the financial accounts of real estate companies (using data for private and public real estate companies). Using related work on company-failure models, it is possible to extend the analysis to provide an equation for the probability of default of real estate companies. The empirical results fail to find a role for borrowing costs in the bank lending equation before 1999, but unless borrowing costs are included after this period, the equation breaks down and systematically underestimates the growth in lending to real estate from then on. Various potential explanations are examined for this breakdown, including the importance of sale and lease-backs. The estimated rental equation appears more stable. The historical tracking performance of the estimated real estate model fails to capture the full extent of the swings in capital values and bank lending in the early 1990s. This is attributed to shifts in the discount rate applied to property income, possibly reflecting a temporary shift in risk premia during this period. The property sector links to the rest of the private non-financial corporate sector through its role as collateral. Since the property model relies partly on macroeconomic influences it can be used in conjunction with macro models to provide forecasts of property values and the probability of default of property companies. Simulations that use this model with the Bank of England macroeconometric model show not only the sensitivity of the probability of default of real estate companies to selected macroeconomic shocks, but also the potential links between the commercial property sector and the financial health of the rest of the corporate sector.

Suggested Citation

  • John Whitley & Richard Windram, 2003. "A quantitative framework for commercial property and its relationship to the analysis of the financial stability of the corporate sector," Bank of England working papers 207, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:207

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. E. P. Davis, 2001. "Multiple Avenues of Intermediation, Corporate Finance and Financial Stability," IMF Working Papers 01/115, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Andrew Benito & John Whitley, 2003. "Implicit interest rates and corporate balance sheets: an analysis using aggregate and disaggregated UK data," Bank of England working papers 193, Bank of England.
    3. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1992. "Capital markets and economic fluctuations in capitalist economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 269-306, April.
    4. repec:sae:niesru:v:139:y::i:1:p:88-94 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Gertjan W. Vlieghe, 2001. "Indicators of fragility in the UK corporate sector," Bank of England working papers 146, Bank of England.
    6. Patric H. Hendershott & Colin M. Lizieri & George A. Matysiak, 1999. "The Workings of the London Office Market," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(2), pages 365-387.
    7. Richard J. Herring & Susan Wachter, 1999. "Real Estate Booms and Banking Busts: An International Perspective," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-27, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    8. Geroski,Paul A. & Gregg,Paul, 1997. "Coping with Recession," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521622769, April.
    9. E P Davis, 1993. "Bank Credit Risk," Bank of England working papers 8, Bank of England.
    10. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michal Hlavacek & Ondrej Novotny & Marek Rusnak, 2014. "Office Property in Central European Countries," Occasional Publications - Chapters in Edited Volumes,in: CNB Financial Stability Report 2013/2014, chapter 0, pages 148-155 Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    2. Krzysztof Olszewski, 2013. "The Commercial Real Estate Market, Central Bank Monitoring and Macroprudential Policy," Review of Economic Analysis, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, vol. 5(2), pages 213-250, December.
    3. Haldane, Andrew & Hall, Simon & Pezzini, Silvia, 2007. "Financial Stability Paper No 2: A New Approach to Assessing Risks to Financial Stability," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 2, Bank of England.
    4. Kieran Farrelly & Ben Sanderson, 2005. "Modelling Regime Shifts in the City of London Office Rental Cycle," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 325-344, December.

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