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Indicators of fragility in the UK corporate sector

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  • Gertjan W. Vlieghe

Abstract

The determinants of the aggregate corporate liquidation rate in the United Kingdom are estimated from a sample of quarterly data using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach which allows for non-stationarity of the variables. The paper investigates what the appropriate measures of indebtedness are, and examines whether the unprecedented spike in the corporate liquidation rate in the United Kingdom in 1992 caused a breakdown in the relationship between the variables. The debt-to-GDP ratio, the real interest rate, deviations of GDP from trend and real wages are found to be long-run determinants of the liquidation rate. The birth rate of new companies, an index of property prices and nominal interest rates have significant short-term effects. The estimated equation is robust to changes in the sample period. The rapidly increasing level of indebtedness in the late 1980s was the main determinant of the subsequent increase in the liquidation rate. The decrease in the liquidation rate after 1992 was primarily due to lower real interest rates, lower real wages and the cyclical recovery of GDP.

Suggested Citation

  • Gertjan W. Vlieghe, 2001. "Indicators of fragility in the UK corporate sector," Bank of England working papers 146, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:146
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    4. Fabling, Richard & Grimes, Arthur, 2005. "Insolvency and economic development: Regional variation and adjustment," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 339-359.
    5. McInerney, Niall, 2019. "Macroprudential Policy, Banking and the Real Estate Sector," MPRA Paper 91777, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. John Whitley & Richard Windram, 2003. "A quantitative framework for commercial property and its relationship to the analysis of the financial stability of the corporate sector," Bank of England working papers 207, Bank of England.
    7. Dua, Pami & Kapur, Hema, 2018. "Macro stress testing and resilience assessment of Indian banking," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 452-475.
    8. Robert Kelly & Eoin Brien & Rebecca Stuart, 2015. "A long-run survival analysis of corporate liquidations in Ireland," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 671-683, March.
    9. Marina Yu. Malkina & Anton O. Ovcharov, 2019. "Financial Stress Index as a Generalized Indicator of Financial Instability," Finansovyj žhurnal — Financial Journal, Financial Research Institute, Moscow 127006, Russia, issue 3, pages 38-54, June.
    10. Petr Jakubík, 2006. "Does Credit Risk Vary with Economic Cycles? The Case of Finland," Working Papers IES 2006/11, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Apr 2006.
    11. Bergin, Adele & Conroy, Niall & Garcia Rodriguez, Abian & Holland, Dawn & McInerney, Niall & Morgenroth, Edgar & Smith, Donal, 2017. "COSMO: A new COre Structural MOdel for Ireland," Papers WP553, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    12. Dietske Simons & Ferdinand Rolwes, 2009. "Macroeconomic efault Modeling and Stress Testing," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 5(3), pages 177-204, September.
    13. Henry, Jérôme & Zimmermann, Maik & Leber, Miha & Kolb, Markus & Grodzicki, Maciej & Amzallag, Adrien & Vouldis, Angelos & Hałaj, Grzegorz & Pancaro, Cosimo & Gross, Marco & Baudino, Patrizia & Sydow, , 2013. "A macro stress testing framework for assessing systemic risks in the banking sector," Occasional Paper Series 152, European Central Bank.
    14. Salnikov, V. & Mogilat, A. & Maslov, I., 2012. "Stress Testing for Russian Real Sector: First Approach," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 46-70.
    15. Hunter, John & Isachenkova, Natalia, 2006. "Aggregate economy risk and company failure: An examination of UK quoted firms in the early 1990s," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 911-919, November.
    16. Virolainen, Kimmo, 2004. "Macro stress testing with a macroeconomic credit risk model for Finland," Research Discussion Papers 18/2004, Bank of Finland.
    17. Salman, A. Khalik & von Friedrichs, Yvonne & Shukur, Ghazi, 2009. "Macroeconomic Factors and Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firm Failure," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 185, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    18. Harada, Nobuyuki & Kageyama, Noriyuki, 2011. "Bankruptcy dynamics in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 119-128, March.
    19. N. Dewaelheyns & C. van Hulle, 2007. "Aggregate Bankruptcy Rates and the Macroeconomic Environment. Forecasting Systematic Probabilities of Default," Review of Business and Economic Literature, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), Review of Business and Economic Literature, vol. 0(4), pages 541-566.
    20. Henryk Gurgul & Paweł Zając, 2014. "The impact of alterations in the local insolvency legislation on business bankruptcy rates in Poland," Statistics in Transition new series, Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polska), vol. 15(3), pages 453-466, June.
    21. Nico Dewaelheyns & Cynthia Hulle, 2008. "Legal reform and aggregate small and micro business bankruptcy rates: evidence from the 1997 Belgian bankruptcy code," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 409-424, December.
    22. Sorge, Marco & Virolainen, Kimmo, 2006. "A comparative analysis of macro stress-testing methodologies with application to Finland," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 113-151, June.
    23. Edeoba William Edobor & Maria I. Marshall, 2021. "Earth, wind, water, fire and man: How disasters impact firm births in the USA," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 107(1), pages 395-421, May.

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