IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bis/biswps/499.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Foreign exchange intervention: strategies and effectiveness

Author

Listed:
  • Nuttathum Chutasripanich
  • James Yetman

Abstract

Foreign exchange intervention has been actively used as a policy tool in many economies in Asia and elsewhere. In this paper, we examine two intervention rules (leaning against exchange rate misalignment and leaning against the wind), utilised with varying degrees of transparency, based on a simple model with three kinds of agents: fundamentalists, speculators and the central bank. We assess the effectiveness of these rules against five criteria: stabilising the exchange rate, reducing current account imbalances, discouraging speculation, minimising reserves volatility and limiting intervention costs. Overall we find no dominant intervention strategy. Intervention that reduces exchange rate volatility, for example, also reduces the risks of speculation, creating a feedback loop and potentially leading to high levels of speculation, reserves volatility and intervention costs. These intervention costs will be especially large when exchange rate movements are driven by interest rate shocks, although some degree of opaqueness can help to reduce them. Survey evidence from BIS (2005, 2013) indicates that central banks follow a range of different strategies when intervening in foreign exchange rates. Given the trade-offs that different strategies entail in our model, this is not surprising.

Suggested Citation

  • Nuttathum Chutasripanich & James Yetman, 2015. "Foreign exchange intervention: strategies and effectiveness," BIS Working Papers 499, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:499
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/work499.pdf
    File Function: Full PDF document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/work499.htm
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Santiago García-Verdú & Miguel Zerecero, 2013. "On central bank interventions in the Mexican peso/dollar foreign exchange market," BIS Working Papers 429, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    3. Juan J. Echavarría & Luis F. Melo-Velandia & Mauricio Villamizar-Villegas, 2018. "The impact of pre-announced day-to-day interventions on the Colombian exchange rate," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 1319-1336, November.
    4. Montoro, Carlos & Ortiz, Marco, 2016. "Foreign exchange intervention and monetary policy design: a market microstructure analysis," Working Papers 2016-008, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    5. Neely, Christopher J., 2008. "Central bank authorities' beliefs about foreign exchange intervention," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-25, February.
    6. De Long, J Bradford, et al, 1990. " Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 379-395, June.
    7. Tony Cavoli & Ramkishen S. Rajan, 2006. "Capital Inflows Problem in Selected Asian Economies in the 1990s Revisited: The Role of Monetary Sterilization ," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 409-423, December.
    8. Beine, Michel & Grauwe, Paul De & Grimaldi, Marianna, 2009. "The impact of FX central bank intervention in a noise trading framework," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1187-1195, July.
    9. Rasmus Fatum & Michael R. King, 2005. "Rules versus Discretion in Foreign Exchange Intervention: Evidence from Official Bank of Canada High-Frequency Data," EPRU Working Paper Series 05-06, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    10. David Cook & James Yetman, 2012. "Expanding central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia: a compendium of risk and some evidence," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are central bank balance sheets in Asia too large?, volume 66, pages 30-75, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Kearns, Jonathan & Rigobon, Roberto, 2005. "Identifying the efficacy of central bank interventions: evidence from Australia and Japan," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 31-48, May.
    12. Charles Engel, 2011. "Currency Misalignments and Optimal Monetary Policy: A Reexamination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(6), pages 2796-2822, October.
    13. Emanuel Kohlscheen, 2012. "Order Flow and the Real: Indirect Evidence of the Effectiveness of Sterilized Interventions," Working Papers Series 273, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    14. Mark P. Taylor & Lucio Sarno, 2001. "Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market: Is It Effective and, If So, How Does It Work?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 839-868, September.
    15. Lukas Menkhoff, 2010. "High-Frequency Analysis Of Foreign Exchange Interventions: What Do We Learn?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 85-112, February.
    16. Alice Ouyang & Ramkishen Rajan, 2011. "Reserve accumulation and monetary sterilization in Singapore and Taiwan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(16), pages 2015-2031.
    17. Devereux, Michael B., 2004. "Should the exchange rate be a shock absorber?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 359-377, March.
    18. Enzo Cassino & Michelle Lewis, 2012. "Currency intervention - the profitability of some recent international experiences," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Analytical Notes series AN2012/03, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    19. Basu, Kaushik, 2012. "How to devalue exchange rates, without building up reserves: Strategic theory for central banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 758-761.
    20. Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2009. "Sterilization, Monetary Policy, and Global Financial Integration," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 777-801, September.
    21. Garcia, Carlos J. & Restrepo, Jorge E. & Roger, Scott, 2011. "How much should inflation targeters care about the exchange rate?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1590-1617.
    22. Gustavo Adler & Camilo E Tovar Mora, 2011. "Foreign Exchange Intervention; A Shield Against Appreciation Winds?," IMF Working Papers 11/165, International Monetary Fund.
    23. King, Michael R, 2003. "Effective Foreign Exchange Intervention: Matching Strategies with Objectives," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 249-271, Summer.
    24. Paul R. Krugman, 1991. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 669-682.
    25. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," Post-Print hal-01044989, HAL.
    26. Andrew Filardo & James Yetman, 2012. "The expansion of central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia: what are the risks?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, June.
    27. Vicki Newman & Chris Potter & Michelle Wright, 2011. "Foreign Exchange Market Intervention," RBA Bulletin (Print copy discontinued), Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 67-76, December.
    28. Carlson, John A. & Osler, C. L., 2000. "Rational speculators and exchange rate volatility1," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 231-253, February.
    29. M S Mohanty & Philip Turner, 2006. "Foreign exchange reserve accumulation in emerging markets: what are the domestic implications?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    30. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    31. De Grauwe, Paul & Grimaldi, Marianna, 2006. "Exchange rate puzzles: A tale of switching attractors," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 1-33, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Solomiia Brychka & Denys Klynovskyi & Dmytro Krukovets & Artem Oharkov, 2019. "Meta-Analysis: Meta-Analysis: Effect of FX interventions on the exchange rate," Modern Economic Studies, Kyiv School of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 24-44.
    2. Sigal Ribon, 2017. "Why the Bank of Israel Intervenes in the Foreign Exchange Market, and What Happens to the Exchange Rate," Bank of Israel Working Papers 2017.04, Bank of Israel.
    3. ABBUY, Kwami Edem, 2018. "An Empirical Test for the Effectiveness of Central Bank Interventions in Foreign Exchange Markets: An Application to the Canadian and Swiss Central Banks," MPRA Paper 89647, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Roberto Chang, 2019. "Foreign Exchange Intervention Redux," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Álvaro Aguirre & Markus Brunnermeier & Diego Saravia (ed.), Monetary Policy and Financial Stability: Transmission Mechanisms and Policy Implications, edition 1, volume 26, chapter 7, pages 205-247, Central Bank of Chile.
    5. Rasmus Fatum & James Yetman, 2018. "Accumulation of foreign currency reserves and risk-taking," BIS Working Papers 728, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Dinara Khamitovna GALLYAMOVA & Aidar Il'darovich MIFTAKHOV, 2017. "Boosting The Autonomy Of Regional Banking Systems As A Driver Of Economic Development: The Case Of Russia," Regional Science Inquiry, Hellenic Association of Regional Scientists, vol. 0(2), pages 55-68, December.
    7. Michael Curran & Adnan Velic, 2018. "The CAPM, National Stock Market Betas, and Macroeconomic Covariates: A Global Analysis," Trinity Economics Papers tep0618, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
    8. X. Fernández, Bernardo & Fernández Q, Vladimir & Aldazosa, E. René, 2018. "Una subasta doble de divisas para la determinación del tipo de cambio en Bolivia," Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Economico, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC), Universidad Católica Boliviana, issue 29, pages 152-189, May.
    9. Yu‐Fu Chen & Michael Funke & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "Informal one‐sided target zone model and the Swiss franc," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 1130-1153, November.
    10. Rasmus Fatum & James Yetman, 2018. "Does the accumulation of foreign currency reserves affect risk-taking? An event study approach," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The price, real and financial effects of exchange rates, volume 96, pages 41-52, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Dražen Koški, 2018. "The Effectiveness of Foreign Exchange Interventions in the Republic of Croatia: The Event Study," Occasional Publications, in: Financije teorija i suvremena pitanja = Finance - theory and contemporary issues, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 229-251, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Economics.
    12. James Riedel, 2018. "The costs and benefits of exchange rate protection in China," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 32(1), pages 3-17, May.
    13. Gabriela Mundaca, 2018. "Central bank interventions in a dollarized economy: managed floating versus inflation targeting," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 1507-1535, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    foreign exchange intervention; exchange rates; speculation;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:499. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Beslmeisl). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bisssch.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.