IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bis/biswps/499.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Foreign exchange intervention: strategies and effectiveness

Author

Listed:
  • Nuttathum Chutasripanich
  • James Yetman

Abstract

Foreign exchange intervention has been actively used as a policy tool in many economies in Asia and elsewhere. In this paper, we examine two intervention rules (leaning against exchange rate misalignment and leaning against the wind), utilised with varying degrees of transparency, based on a simple model with three kinds of agents: fundamentalists, speculators and the central bank. We assess the effectiveness of these rules against five criteria: stabilising the exchange rate, reducing current account imbalances, discouraging speculation, minimising reserves volatility and limiting intervention costs. Overall we find no dominant intervention strategy. Intervention that reduces exchange rate volatility, for example, also reduces the risks of speculation, creating a feedback loop and potentially leading to high levels of speculation, reserves volatility and intervention costs. These intervention costs will be especially large when exchange rate movements are driven by interest rate shocks, although some degree of opaqueness can help to reduce them. Survey evidence from BIS (2005, 2013) indicates that central banks follow a range of different strategies when intervening in foreign exchange rates. Given the trade-offs that different strategies entail in our model, this is not surprising.

Suggested Citation

  • Nuttathum Chutasripanich & James Yetman, 2015. "Foreign exchange intervention: strategies and effectiveness," BIS Working Papers 499, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:499
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/work499.pdf
    File Function: Full PDF document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/work499.htm
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Santiago García-Verdú & Miguel Zerecero, 2013. "On central bank interventions in the Mexican peso/dollar foreign exchange market," BIS Working Papers 429, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    3. Juan J. Echavarría & Luis F. Melo-Velandia & Mauricio Villamizar-Villegas, 2018. "The impact of pre-announced day-to-day interventions on the Colombian exchange rate," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 1319-1336, November.
    4. Montoro, Carlos & Ortiz, Marco, 2016. "Foreign exchange intervention and monetary policy design: a market microstructure analysis," Working Papers 2016-008, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    5. Neely, Christopher J., 2008. "Central bank authorities' beliefs about foreign exchange intervention," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-25, February.
    6. De Long, J Bradford, et al, 1990. "Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 379-395, June.
    7. Tony Cavoli & Ramkishen S. Rajan, 2006. "Capital Inflows Problem in Selected Asian Economies in the 1990s Revisited: The Role of Monetary Sterilization," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 409-423, December.
    8. Beine, Michel & Grauwe, Paul De & Grimaldi, Marianna, 2009. "The impact of FX central bank intervention in a noise trading framework," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1187-1195, July.
    9. Rasmus Fatum & Michael R. King, 2005. "Rules versus Discretion in Foreign Exchange Intervention: Evidence from Official Bank of Canada High-Frequency Data," EPRU Working Paper Series 05-06, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    10. David Cook & James Yetman, 2012. "Expanding central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia: a compendium of risk and some evidence," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are central bank balance sheets in Asia too large?, volume 66, pages 30-75, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Gustavo Adler & Camilo E Tovar Mora, 2011. "Foreign Exchange Intervention; A Shield Against Appreciation Winds?," IMF Working Papers 2011/165, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    13. Kearns, Jonathan & Rigobon, Roberto, 2005. "Identifying the efficacy of central bank interventions: evidence from Australia and Japan," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 31-48, May.
    14. Paul De Grauwe & Marianna Grimaldi, 2014. "Exchange Rate Puzzles: A Tale of Switching Attractors," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Exchange Rates and Global Financial Policies, chapter 3, pages 71-117, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    15. Charles Engel, 2011. "Currency Misalignments and Optimal Monetary Policy: A Reexamination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(6), pages 2796-2822, October.
    16. Emanuel Kohlscheen, 2012. "Order Flow and the Real: Indirect Evidence of the Effectiveness of Sterilized Interventions," Working Papers Series 273, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    17. Mark P. Taylor & Lucio Sarno, 2001. "Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market: Is It Effective and, If So, How Does It Work?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 839-868, September.
    18. Lukas Menkhoff, 2010. "High‐Frequency Analysis Of Foreign Exchange Interventions: What Do We Learn?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 85-112, February.
    19. Alice Ouyang & Ramkishen Rajan, 2011. "Reserve accumulation and monetary sterilization in Singapore and Taiwan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(16), pages 2015-2031.
    20. Lukas Menkhoff, 2010. "High‐Frequency Analysis Of Foreign Exchange Interventions: What Do We Learn?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 85-112, February.
    21. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    22. Devereux, Michael B., 2004. "Should the exchange rate be a shock absorber?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 359-377, March.
    23. Enzo Cassino & Michelle Lewis, 2012. "Currency intervention - the profitability of some recent international experiences," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Analytical Notes series AN2012/03, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    24. Basu, Kaushik, 2012. "How to devalue exchange rates, without building up reserves: Strategic theory for central banking," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 758-761.
    25. Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2009. "Sterilization, Monetary Policy, and Global Financial Integration," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 777-801, September.
    26. Garcia, Carlos J. & Restrepo, Jorge E. & Roger, Scott, 2011. "How much should inflation targeters care about the exchange rate?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1590-1617.
    27. King, Michael R, 2003. "Effective Foreign Exchange Intervention: Matching Strategies with Objectives," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 249-271, Summer.
    28. Paul R. Krugman, 1991. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 669-682.
    29. Andrew Filardo & James Yetman, 2012. "The expansion of central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia: what are the risks?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, June.
    30. Vicki Newman & Chris Potter & Michelle Wright, 2011. "Foreign Exchange Market Intervention," RBA Bulletin (Print copy discontinued), Reserve Bank of Australia, pages 67-76, December.
    31. Michel Beine & Paul De Grauwe & Marianna Grimaldi, 2014. "The Impact of FX Central Bank Intervention in a Noise Trading Framework," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Exchange Rates and Global Financial Policies, chapter 6, pages 189-216, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    32. Carlson, John A. & Osler, C. L., 2000. "Rational speculators and exchange rate volatility1," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 231-253, February.
    33. M S Mohanty & Philip Turner, 2006. "Foreign exchange reserve accumulation in emerging markets: what are the domestic implications?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    34. Jérôme Héricourt & Sandra Poncet, 2015. "Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 29(3), pages 550-578.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fatum, Rasmus & Yetman, James, 2020. "Accumulation of foreign currency reserves and risk-taking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C).
    2. Dražen Koški, 2018. "The Effectiveness of Foreign Exchange Interventions in the Republic of Croatia: The Event Study," Occasional Publications, in: Financije teorija i suvremena pitanja = Finance - theory and contemporary issues, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 229-251, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Economics.
    3. Gabriela Mundaca, 2018. "Central bank interventions in a dollarized economy: managed floating versus inflation targeting," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 1507-1535, December.
    4. Solomiia Brychka & Denys Klynovskyi & Dmytro Krukovets & Artem Oharkov, 2019. "Meta-Analysis: Meta-Analysis: Effect of FX interventions on the exchange rate," Modern Economic Studies, Kyiv School of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 24-44.
    5. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Timothy P. Jackson & Luiz Pereira da Silva, 2020. "Foreign Exchange Intervention and Financial Stability," Working Papers 202027, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    6. Rasmus Fatum & James Yetman, 2018. "Does the accumulation of foreign currency reserves affect risk-taking? An event study approach," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The price, real and financial effects of exchange rates, volume 96, pages 41-52, Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Sigal Ribon, 2017. "Why the Bank of Israel Intervenes in the Foreign Exchange Market, and What Happens to the Exchange Rate," Bank of Israel Working Papers 2017.04, Bank of Israel.
    8. ABBUY, Kwami Edem, 2018. "An Empirical Test for the Effectiveness of Central Bank Interventions in Foreign Exchange Markets: An Application to the Canadian and Swiss Central Banks," MPRA Paper 89647, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Roberto Chang, 2019. "Foreign Exchange Intervention Redux," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Álvaro Aguirre & Markus Brunnermeier & Diego Saravia (ed.),Monetary Policy and Financial Stability: Transmission Mechanisms and Policy Implications, edition 1, volume 26, chapter 7, pages 205-247, Central Bank of Chile.
    10. Yu‐Fu Chen & Michael Funke & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "Informal one‐sided target zone model and the Swiss franc," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 1130-1153, November.
    11. Соломія Бричка & Денис Клиновський & Дмитро Круковець & Артем Огарков, 2019. "Мета-аналіз: ефект fx-інтервенцій на валютний курс," Suchasni ekonomichni doslidzhennja, Kyiv School of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 24-47.
    12. Michael Curran & Adnan Velic, 2020. "The CAPM, National Stock Market Betas, and Macroeconomic Covariates: a Global Analysis," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 787-820, September.
    13. X. Fernández, Bernardo & Fernández Q, Vladimir & Aldazosa, E. René, 2018. "Una subasta doble de divisas para la determinación del tipo de cambio en Bolivia," Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Economico, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC-UCB), Universidad Católica Boliviana, issue 29, pages 152-189, May.
    14. James Riedel, 2018. "The costs and benefits of exchange rate protection in China," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 32(1), pages 3-17, May.
    15. Dinara Khamitovna GALLYAMOVA & Aidar Il'darovich MIFTAKHOV, 2017. "Boosting The Autonomy Of Regional Banking Systems As A Driver Of Economic Development: The Case Of Russia," Regional Science Inquiry, Hellenic Association of Regional Scientists, vol. 0(2), pages 55-68, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Devereux, Michael B. & Yetman, James, 2014. "Globalisation, pass-through and the optimal policy response to exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PA), pages 104-128.
    2. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Lukas Menkhoff, 2013. "Foreign Exchange Intervention in Emerging Markets: A Survey of Empirical Studies," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(9), pages 1187-1208, September.
    4. Juan J. Echavarría & Luis F. Melo-Velandia & Mauricio Villamizar-Villegas, 2018. "The impact of pre-announced day-to-day interventions on the Colombian exchange rate," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 1319-1336, November.
    5. Biswajit Banerjee & Juraj Zeman & Ľudovít Ódor & William O. Riiska, 2018. "On the Effectiveness of Central Bank Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market: The Case of Slovakia, 1999–2007," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 60(3), pages 442-474, September.
    6. Jeffrey Frankel, 2019. "Systematic Managed Floating," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 255-295, April.
    7. Adler, Gustavo & Lisack, Noëmie & Mano, Rui C., 2019. "Unveiling the effects of foreign exchange intervention: A panel approach," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-1.
    8. Marcel Fratzscher & Oliver Gloede & Lukas Menkhoff & Lucio Sarno & Tobias Stöhr, 2019. "When Is Foreign Exchange Intervention Effective? Evidence from 33 Countries," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 11(1), pages 132-156, January.
    9. Michael B Devereux & James Yetman, 2014. "Responding to exchange rates in a globalised world," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Globalisation, inflation and monetary policy in Asia and the Pacific, volume 77, pages 97-117, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Lee, Hsiu-Yun, 2011. "Nonlinear exchange rate dynamics under stochastic official intervention," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1510-1518, July.
    11. Ordoñez-Callamand, Daniel & Hernandez-Leal, Juan D. & Villamizar-Villegas, Mauricio, 2018. "When multiple objectives meet multiple instruments: Identifying simultaneous monetary shocks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 78-101.
    12. Kohn, David & Leibovici, Fernando & Szkup, Michal, 2020. "Financial frictions and export dynamics in large devaluations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    13. Héricourt, Jérôme & Nedoncelle, Clément, 2018. "Multi-destination firms and the impact of exchange-rate risk on trade," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 1178-1193.
    14. Tan, Madeleine Sui-Lay, 2016. "Policy coordination among the ASEAN-5: A global VAR analysis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 20-40.
    15. Melvin, Michael & Menkhoff, Lukas & Schmeling, Maik, 2009. "Exchange rate management in emerging markets: Intervention via an electronic limit order book," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 54-63, September.
    16. Kuersteiner, Guido M. & Phillips, David C. & Villamizar-Villegas, Mauricio, 2018. "Effective sterilized foreign exchange intervention? Evidence from a rule-based policy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 118-138.
    17. Bajo-Rubio, Oscar & Berke, Burcu & McMillan, David G., 2020. "Exchange rate volatility in the eurozone," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 14, pages 1-23.
    18. Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Johannsen, Florian, 2017. "Monetary uncertainty and trade in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: A firm-level analysis," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 476-490.
    19. Cengiz Tunc & Senol Babuşçu & Adalet Hazar & M. Nihat Solakoglu, 2020. "Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade: External Exchange Rate Volatility Matters," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 11(02), pages 1-19, June.
    20. Ramis Khabibullin & Alexey Ponomarenko & Sergei Seleznev, 2018. "Forecasting the implications of foreign exchange reserve accumulation with an agent-based model," Bank of Russia Working Paper Series wps37, Bank of Russia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    foreign exchange intervention; exchange rates; speculation;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:499. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Beslmeisl). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bisssch.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.