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Currency Misalignments and Optimal Monetary Policy: A Re-examination

  • Charles Engel

    (University of Wisconsin)

This paper examines optimal monetary policy in an open-economy two-country model with sticky prices. Currency misalignments are shown to be inefficient and lower world welfare. Also, optimal policy must target not only inflation and the output gap, but also the currency misalignment. However, the interest rate reaction function that supports this targeting rule involves only the CPI inflation rate. This result illustrates how examination of ‘instrument rules’ may hide important trade-offs facing policy-makers that are incorporated in ‘targeting rules’. The model is a modified version of Clarida, Galí and Gertler’s (2002). The key change is to allow pricing to market or local-currency pricing and consider the policy implications of currency misalignments. Besides highlighting the importance of the currency misalignment, this model also gives a rationale for targeting CPI inflation, rather than producer price inflation as in Clarida, Galí and Gertler.

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Paper provided by Reserve Bank of Australia in its series RBA Research Discussion Papers with number rdp2009-01.

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Date of creation: Mar 2009
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Handle: RePEc:rba:rbardp:rdp2009-01
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  1. Lars E.O. Svensson, 1998. "Inflation Targeting as a Monetary Policy Rule," NBER Working Papers 6790, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Michael B. Devereux & Charles Engel, 2000. "Monetary Policy in the Open Economy Revisited: Price Setting and Exchange Rate Flexibility," NBER Working Papers 7665, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Alan Sutherland, 2002. "Incomplete Pass-Through and the Welfare Effects of Exchange Rate Variability," Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics 200212, Department of Economics, University of St. Andrews.
  4. Cambell Leith & Simon Wren-Lewis, 2006. " The Optimal Monetary Policy Response to Exchange Rate Misalignments," CDMA Conference Paper Series 0605, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  5. Engel, C., 1996. "Accounting for U.S. Real Exchange Rate Changes," Working Papers 96-02, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  6. Obstfeld, Maurice & Duarte, Margarida, 2005. "Monetary Policy in the Open Economy Revisited: The Case for Exchange-Rate Flexibility Restored," 2005 Meeting Papers 386, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Smets, Frank & Wouters, Raf, 2002. "Openness, imperfect exchange rate pass-through and monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 947-981, July.
  8. Erceg, Christopher J. & Henderson, Dale W. & Levin, Andrew T., 2000. "Optimal monetary policy with staggered wage and price contracts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 281-313, October.
  9. De Paoli, Bianca, 2009. "Monetary policy and welfare in a small open economy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 11-22, February.
  10. Adolfson, Malin & Laséen, Stefan & Lindé, Jesper & Svensson, Lars E O, 2008. "Monetary Policy Trade-Offs in an Estimated Open-Economy DSGE Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 7070, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Ester Faia & Tommaso Monacelli, 2006. "Optimal Monetary Policy in a Small Open Economy with Home Bias," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 521, Society for Computational Economics.
  12. Nooman Rebei & Steven Ambler & Ali Dib, 2004. "Optimal Taylor Rules in an Estimated Model of a Small Open Economy," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 627, Econometric Society.
  13. Evi Pappa, 2004. "Do the ECB and the Fed really need to cooperate? Optimal monetary policy in a two-country world," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 512, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  14. Lars E.O. Svensson, 2002. "Inflation Targeting: Should It Be Modeled as an Instrument Rule or a Targeting Rule?," NBER Working Papers 8925, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Benigno, Gianluca & Benigno, Pierpaolo, 2003. "Designing targeting rules for international monetary policy cooperation," Working Paper Series 0279, European Central Bank.
  16. Clarida, Richard & Galí, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 2002. "A Simple Framework for International Monetary Policy Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 3355, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Günter Coenen & Giovanni Lombardo & Frank Smets & Roland Straub, 2007. "International Transmission and Monetary Policy Cooperation," NBER Chapters, in: International Dimensions of Monetary Policy, pages 157-192 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Wang, Jian, 2010. "Home bias, exchange rate disconnect, and optimal exchange rate policy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 55-78, February.
  19. Leitemo, Kai & Soderstrom, Ulf, 2005. "Simple monetary policy rules and exchange rate uncertainty," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 481-507, April.
  20. Benigno, Gianluca, 2004. "Real exchange rate persistence and monetary policy rules," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 473-502, April.
  21. Gianluca Benigno & Pierpaolo Benigno, 2003. "Price Stability in Open Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(4), pages 743-764.
  22. Robert Kollmann, 2002. "Monetary policy rules in the open economy: effects of welfare and business cycles," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/7628, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  23. Aoki, Kosuke, 2001. "Optimal monetary policy responses to relative-price changes," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 55-80, August.
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