IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Firm-Size Wage Gaps Along the Formal-Informal Divide: Theory and Evidence

  • Binnur Balkan

    ()

    (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)

  • Semih Tumen

    ()

    (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)

Observationally equivalent workers are paid higher wages in larger firms. This fact is often named as the “firm-size wage gap” and is regarded as a key empirical puzzle. Using a nationally representative micro- level survey data from Turkey, this paper documents a new stylized fact: the firm-size wage gap is more pronounced for informal (unregistered) jobs than for formal (registered) jobs. To explain this fact, we develop a two-stage wage-posting game with market imperfections and segmented markets, the solution to which produces wages as a function of firm size in a well-defined subgame-perfect equilibrium. The model proposes two distinct mechanisms. First, setting high tax rates on formal activity generates a wedge between formal and informal size wage gaps. Thus, government policy can potentially affect the magnitude of the firm-size wage gaps. We provide auxiliary empirical evidence justifying this finding. The model is able to explain the stylized fact through a second mechanism-even when the tax dimension is shut down. Higher wages offered by a larger firm for a formal job can attract a larger number of applicants, than the same amount offered by the same firm can attract for an informal job. The larger pool of applicants for the formal job, in turn, enables the firm to keep the size differentials modest, while this mitigating effect is weaker for informal jobs.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://betam.bahcesehir.edu.tr/tr/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/WorkingPaper012.pdf
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 404 Not Found. If this is indeed the case, please notify (Merve Akgul)


Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Bahcesehir University, Betam in its series Working Papers with number 012.

as
in new window

Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bae:wpaper:012
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.betam.bahcesehir.edu.tr
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Betcherman, Gordon & Daysal, N. Meltem & Pagés, Carmen, 2010. "Do employment subsidies work? Evidence from regionally targeted subsidies in Turkey," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 710-722, August.
  2. Edward P. Lazear, 2009. "Firm-Specific Human Capital: A Skill-Weights Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(5), pages 914-940, October.
  3. Xavier Gabaix & Augustin Landier, 2008. "Why Has CEO Pay Increased So Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(1), pages 49-100, 02.
  4. Pratap, Sangeeta & Quintin, Erwan, 2006. "Are labor markets segmented in developing countries? A semiparametric approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1817-1841, October.
  5. Costas Meghir & Renata Narita & Jean-Marc Robin, 2013. "Wages and informality in developing countries," CeMMAP working papers CWP08/13, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  6. Meagher, Kieron J. & Wilson, Hugh, 2004. "Different firm size effects on wages for supervisors and workers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 225-230, August.
  7. Fathi Fakhfakh & Felix Fitzroy, 2006. "Dynamic Monopsony: Evidence from a French Establishment Panel," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 533-545, 08.
  8. Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur, 2002. "Wage differentials and mobility in the urban labour market: a panel data analysis for Mexico," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 513-529, September.
  9. Aysit Tansel & Elif Oznur Kan, 2012. "Labor Mobility Across The Formal/Informal Divide in Turkey: Evidence From Individual Level Data," Working Papers 2012/1, Turkish Economic Association.
  10. Kenneth R Troske, 1994. "Evidence on the Employer Size-Wage Premium From Worker-Establishment Matched Data," Working Papers 94-10, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  11. Brunello, Giorgio & Colussi, Aldo, 1998. "The employer size-wage effect: evidence from Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 217-230, June.
  12. William T. Dickens & Kevin Lang, 1985. "Testing Dual Labor Market Theory: A Reconsideration of the Evidence," NBER Working Papers 1670, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Luis Garicano & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2005. "Organization and Inequality in a Knowledge Economy," NBER Working Papers 11458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Pradhan, M.P. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1993. "Formal and informal sector employment in urban areas of Bolivia," Discussion Paper 1993-11, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  15. Magnac, Th, 1991. "Segmented or Competitive Labor Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 165-87, January.
  16. El Badaoui, Eliane & Strobl, Eric & Walsh, Frank, 2010. "The formal sector wage premium and firm size," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 37-47, January.
  17. Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-75, June.
  18. Jeremy T. Fox, 2009. "Firm-Size Wage Gaps, Job Responsibility, and Hierarchical Matching," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(1), pages 83-126, 01.
  19. Alexander Muravyev, 2009. "Employer Size, Wages And Unobserved Skills: Evidence From Moonlighters In The Uk," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(6), pages 651-674, December.
  20. Paul Fenn & Simon Ashby, 2004. "Workplace Risk, Establishment Size and Union Density," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 461-480, 09.
  21. Douglas Marcouiller, S.J. & Veronica Ruiz de Castilla & Christopher Woodruff, 1995. "Formal Measures of the Informal Sector Wage Gap in Mexico, El Salvador, and Peru," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 294., Boston College Department of Economics.
  22. James J. Heckman & V. Joseph Hotz, 1986. "An Investigation of the Labor Market Earnings of Panamanian Males Evaluating the Sources of Inequality," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 507-542.
  23. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  24. Aysit Tansel, 1999. "Formal Versus Informal Sector Choice of Wage Earners and their Wages in Turkey," Working Papers 9927, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 1999.
  25. Walter Y. Oi & Todd L. Idson, 1999. "Workers Are More Productive in Large Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 104-108, May.
  26. Brown, Charles & Medoff, James, 1989. "The Employer Size-Wage Effect," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1027-59, October.
  27. Weiss, Andrew & Landau, Henry J, 1984. "Wages, Hiring Standards, and Firm Size," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 477-99, October.
  28. Albaek, Karsten & Arai, Mahmood & Asplund, Rita & Barth, Erling & Strojer Madsen, Erik, 1998. "Measuring wage effects of plant size," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 425-448, December.
  29. Mellow, Wesley, 1982. "Employer Size and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(3), pages 495-501, August.
  30. Erling Barth & Harald Dale-Olsen, 2011. "Employer Size or Skill Group Size Effect on Wages?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 64(2), pages 341-355, January.
  31. Ihrig, Jane & Moe, Karine S., 2004. "Lurking in the shadows: the informal sector and government policy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 541-557, April.
  32. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1976. "The Efficiency Wage Hypothesis, Surplus Labour, and the Distribution of Income in L.D.C.s," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(2), pages 185-207, July.
  33. William T. Dickens & Kevin Lang, 1984. "A Test of Dual Labor Market Theory," NBER Working Papers 1314, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Binnur Balkan & Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Semih Tumen, 2014. "Evaluating the Impact of the Post-2008 Employment Subsidy Program in Turkey," Working Papers 1414, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  35. Kevin Lang & Michael Manove & William T. Dickens, 2005. "Racial Discrimination in Labor Markets with Posted Wage Offers," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-145, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  36. Lang, Kevin, 1991. "Persistent Wage Dispersion and Involuntary Unemployment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(1), pages 181-202, February.
  37. Marko Tervio, 2008. "The Difference That CEOs Make: An Assignment Model Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(3), pages 642-68, June.
  38. Idson, Todd L & Feaster, Daniel J, 1990. "A Selectivity Model of Employer-Size Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 99-122, January.
  39. Tan, Hong & Batra, Geeta, 1997. "Technology and Firm Size-Wage Differentials in Colombia, Mexico, and Taiwan (China)," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 59-83, January.
  40. Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2007. "The establishment-size wage premium: evidence from European countries," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8735, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  41. Costas Meghir & Renata Narita & Jean-Marc Robin, 2012. "Wages and Informality in Developing Countries," Working Papers 1018, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  42. Baker, George P & Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1988. " Compensation and Incentives: Practice vs. Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 593-616, July.
  43. Montgomery, James D, 1991. "Equilibrium Wage Dispersion and Interindustry Wage Differentials," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(1), pages 163-79, February.
  44. Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2005. "Why do large firms pay higher wages? evidence from matched worker-firm data," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8743, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  45. Becker, Gary S, 1973. "A Theory of Marriage: Part I," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(4), pages 813-46, July-Aug..
  46. Erzo G. J. Luttmer, 2007. "Selection, Growth, and the Size Distribution of Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1103-1144, 08.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bae:wpaper:012. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Merve Akgul)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.