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Economic Issues in the Coexistence of Organic, Genetically Engineered (GE), and Non-GE Crops

Author

Listed:
  • Greene, Catherine
  • Wechsler, Seth J.
  • Adalja, Aaron
  • Hanson, James

Abstract

Two decades after the first genetically engineered (GE) seeds became commercially available for major field crops, GE varieties have been widely adopted for U.S. corn, soybean, cotton, canola, and sugar beet production. The small, longstanding market for organically grown food (which excludes GE seed and material) continues to expand and a market for conventionally grown foods produced without GE seed has also emerged. In order to maintain the integrity of GE-differentiated markets, organic farmers—and other farmers using non-GE seeds—employ a variety of practices to avoid the accidental mixing of GE material in their crops. This report examines organic and conventional product markets in the United States. It describes commonly used coexistence practices and discusses the economic impacts when GE material is detected in organic crops.

Suggested Citation

  • Greene, Catherine & Wechsler, Seth J. & Adalja, Aaron & Hanson, James, 2016. "Economic Issues in the Coexistence of Organic, Genetically Engineered (GE), and Non-GE Crops," Economic Information Bulletin 232929, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:uersib:232929
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    File URL: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/232929/files/eib-149.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fuglie, Keith O. & Heisey, Paul W. & King, John L. & Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A. & Schimmelpfennig, David E. & Wang, Sun Ling, 2011. "Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide," Economic Research Report 120324, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    2. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Hendricks, Chad & Mishra, Ashok K., 2005. "Technology Adoption and Off-Farm Household Income: The Case of Herbicide-Tolerant Soybeans," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-15, December.
    3. Greene, Catherine & McBride, William D., 2015. "Consumer Demand for Organiz Milk Continues to Expand-Can the U.S. Dairy Sector Catch Up?," Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 0(Issue 1), pages 1-6.
    4. Darrell L. Hueth & Richard E. Just, 1987. "Policy Implications of Agricultural Biotechnology," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 69(2), pages 426-431.
    5. Greene, Catherine R. & Smith, Katherine R., 2010. "Can Genetically Engineered and Organic Crops Coexist?," Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 0(Issue 2), pages 1-13.
    6. Carter, Colin A. & Gruere, Guillaume P., 2003. "International Approaches to the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods," Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 0(Issue 2), pages 1-1.
    7. Hanson, James C. & Dismukes, Robert & Chambers, William & Greene, Catherine R. & Kremen, Amy, 2003. "Risk And Risk Management In Organic Agriculture: View Of Organic Farmers," Working Papers 28551, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    8. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Livingston, Michael J. & Mitchell, Lorraine & Wechsler, Seth, 2014. "Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States," Economic Research Report 164263, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    9. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Wechsler, Seth James, 2012. "Revisiting the Impact of Bt Corn Adoption by U.S. Farmers," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-14, December.
    10. Greene, Catherine R., 2001. "U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33777, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    11. Gale, Fred & Hansen, James & Jewison, Michael, 2015. "China’s Growing Demand for Agricultural Imports," Economic Information Bulletin 198800, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
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    Keywords

    Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management;

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