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Impacts Of International Maize Breeding Research In Developing Countries, 1966-98

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  • Morris, Michael L.

Abstract

This report, which updates and extends the findings of an earlier CIMMYT study published in 1994, documents the impacts of international maize breeding research in the developing world. Covering the period 1966-98, the report reviews public and private investment in maize breeding research, describes the products of public and private maize breeding programs, estimates farm level adoption of modern varieties (MVs), and estimates the gross value of additional grain production attributable to international breeding efforts. Although private companies have greatly increased their investment in maize breeding research in recent years, public maize breeding programs still play an important role, especially in breeding for subsistence-oriented farmers. Seed sales data show that the maize seed industry in many developing countries has effectively been privatized and that hybrid seed sales now dominate sales of all other seed types. The area planted to MVs continues to expand at an impressive rate. Maize MVs are currently grown on at least 58.8 million ha in developing countries, including at least 21.2 million ha planted to MVs that contain CIMMYT germplasm. The gross value of additional grain production attributable to the adoption of maize MVs in developing countries is estimated to range from US$ 3.7 million to US$ 11.1 billion per year. Analysis of varietal pedigrees shows that breeders in both the public and private sectors have made extensive use of CIMMYT germplasm. Over 54% of publicly bred MVs released in the developing world since 1966 have contained CIMMYT germplasm. The pedigrees of many privately bred cultivars are confidential, but CIMMYT germplasm was present in 58% of MVs developed by private breeding programs being sold in the late 1990s for which pedigree information is available. The gross benefits attributable to CIMMYT's maize breeding program are estimated to range from US$ 167 million to US$ 1.5 billion per year.

Suggested Citation

  • Morris, Michael L., 2002. "Impacts Of International Maize Breeding Research In Developing Countries, 1966-98," Impact Studies 23722, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:cimmis:23722
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23722
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Morris, Michael L. & Smale, Melinda, 1997. "Organization and Performance of National Maize Seed Industries: A New Institutionalist Perspective," Economics Working Papers 7698, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    2. Alston, Julian M. & Marra, Michele C. & Pardey, Philip G. & Wyatt, T.J., 2000. "Research returns redux: a meta-analysis of the returns to agricultural R&D," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 44(2), June.
    3. Rauniyar, Ganesh P. & Goode, Frank M., 1992. "Technology adoption on small farms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 275-282, February.
    4. Walker, Thomas Steven, 1981. "Risk and Adoption of Hybrid Maize in El Salvador," Food Research Institute Studies, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, issue 01.
    5. Alston, Julian M. & Pardey, Philip G., 2001. "Attribution and other problems in assessing the returns to agricultural R&D," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(2-3), pages 141-152, September.
    6. Kosarek, Jennifer L. & Garcia, Philip & Morris, Michael L., 2001. "Factors explaining the diffusion of hybrid maize in Latin America and the Caribbean region," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 26(3), pages 267-280, December.
    7. Smale, Melinda & Heisey, Paul W & Leathers, Howard D, 1995. "Maize of the Ancestors and Modern Varieties: The Microeconomics of High-Yielding Variety Adoption in Malawi," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 351-368, January.
    8. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-298, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bellon, Mauricio R. & Adato, Michelle & Becerril, Javier & Mindek, Dubravka, 2006. "Poor farmers' perceived benefits from different types of maize germplasm: The case of creolization in lowland tropical Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 113-129, January.
    2. Nguezet, Paul Martin Dontsop & Diagne, Aliou & Okoruwa, Victor Olusegun & Ojehomon, Vivian, 0. "Impact of Improved Rice Technology (NERICA varieties) on Income and Poverty among Rice Farming Households in Nigeria: A Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) Approach," Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, vol. 50.
    3. Thula Dlamini & Frik Liebenberg, 2015. "The Aggregate economic benefits of the National Cultivar Trials for Maize in South Africa with specific reference to the Highveld region," Agrekon, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(3), pages 43-61, September.
    4. Arega D. Alene & Abebe Menkir & S. O. Ajala & B. Badu-Apraku & A. S. Olanrewaju & V. M. Manyong & Abdou Ndiaye, 2009. "The economic and poverty impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(5), pages 535-550, September.
    5. Becerril, Javier & Abdulai, Awudu, 2010. "The Impact of Improved Maize Varieties on Poverty in Mexico: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1024-1035, July.
    6. Fischer, Klara, 2016. "Why new crop technology is not scale-neutral—A critique of the expectations for a crop-based African Green Revolution," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 1185-1194.

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    Productivity Analysis;

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