IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Worker inflow, outflow, and churning


  • Pekka Ilmakunnas
  • Mika Maliranta


Linked employer-employee data from Finnish business sector is used in analysing worker turnover. The data set is an unbalanced panel with over 219 000 observations in 1991-97. The churning (excess worker turnover), worker inflow, and worker outflow rates are explained by plant and employee characteristics. The probabilities of observing non-zero churning, inflow, and outflow rates increase with plant size. The magnitudes of the non-zero churning and inflow rates depend positively on size, but the magnitude of outflow rate depends negatively on size. High-wage plants have low turnover; plants with large within-plant variation in wages have high turnover. Average tenure of employees has a negative impact on turnover. High plant employment growth increases churning and separation but reduces hiring in the next year. Also controlled are average age and education of employees, shares of women and homeowners among employees, foreign ownership, ownership changes, and regional unemployment.

Suggested Citation

  • Pekka Ilmakunnas & Mika Maliranta, 2005. "Worker inflow, outflow, and churning," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(10), pages 1115-1133.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:37:y:2005:i:10:p:1115-1133
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840500109621

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2000. " The Reallocation of Labour and the Lifecycle of Firms," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(0), pages 885-907, Special I.
    2. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2000. "Job Flows, Worker Flows, and Churning," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 473-502, July.
    3. John Haltiwanger & Milan Vodopivec, 2002. "Worker Flows, Job Flows and Firm Wage Policies: An Analysis of Slovenia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 486, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Derek Neal, 1998. "The Link between Ability and Specialization: An Explanation for Observed Correlations between Wages and Mobility Rates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 173-200.
    5. Julia I. Lane & Alan G. Isaac & David W. Stevens, 1996. "Firm Heterogeneity and Worker Turnover," Labor and Demography 9602001, EconWPA.
    6. John M. Abowd & Patrick Corbel & Francis Kramarz, 1999. "The Entry And Exit Of Workers And The Growth Of Employment: An Analysis Of French Establishments," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 170-187, May.
    7. Munasinghe, Lalith, 2000. "Wage Growth and the Theory of Turnover," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 204-220, April.
    8. McLaughlin, Kenneth J, 1991. "A Theory of Quits and Layoffs with Efficient Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(1), pages 1-29, February.
    9. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
    10. George A. Akerlof & Andrew K. Rose & Janet L. Yellen, 1988. "Job Switching and Job Satisfaction in the U.S. Labor Market," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(2), pages 495-594.
    11. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2001. "Churning dynamics: an analysis of hires and separations at the employer level," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-14, January.
    12. Oswald Andrew J., 1996. "A Conjecture on the Explanation for High Unemployment in the Industrialized Nations : Part I," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 475, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    13. Lutz Bellmann & Tito Boeri, 1998. "Internal And External Adjustment To New Technologies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2-4), pages 325-343.
    14. J. David Brown & John S. Earle, "undated". "The Reallocation of Workers and Jobs in Russian Industry: New Evidence on Measures and Determinants," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles jse20031, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    15. Jordi Gual (ed.), 1998. "Job Creation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1462.
    16. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1979. "Job Matching and the Theory of Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 972-990, October.
    17. Ilmakunnas, Pekka & Maliranta, Mika, 2001. "The Turnover of Jobs and Workers in a Deep Recession: Evidence from the Finnish Business Sector," Discussion Papers 747, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    18. Edward P. Lazear, 1984. "Raids and Offermatching," NBER Working Papers 1419, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Royalty, Anne Beeson, 1998. "Job-to-Job and Job-to-Nonemployment Turnover by Gender and Education Level," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 392-443, April.
    20. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Mika Maliranta, 2004. "Hiring from unemployment and separation to unemployment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 91-95.
    21. Jos Van Ommeren & Giovanni Russo, 1997. "Are vacancies difficult to fill? an empirical investigation of the Dutch labour market," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(3), pages 349-357.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Seija Ilmakunnas, 2014. "Age segregation and hiring of older employees: low mobility revisited," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(8), pages 1090-1115, October.
    2. Petri Böckerman & Mika Maliranta, 2013. "Outsourcing, Occupational Restructuring, and Employee Well-Being: Is There a Silver Lining?," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 878-914, October.
    3. Philippe Askenazy & Eva Moreno Galbis, 2007. "The Impact of Technological and Organizational Changes on Labor Flows. Evidence on French Establishments," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 21(2), pages 265-301, June.
    4. Tsou, Meng-Wen & Liu, Jin-Tan, 2005. "Wage dispersion and employment turnover in Taiwan," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 408-414, September.
    5. Pedro S. Martins, 2008. "Worker churning and firms' wage policies," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 29(1), pages 48-63, March.
    6. Maliranta, Mika, 2005. "Foreign-owned Firms and Productivity-enhancing Restructuring in Finnish Manufacturing Industries," Discussion Papers 965, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    7. Maliranta, Mika, . "Micro Level Dynamics of Productivity Growth. An Empirical Analysis of the Great Leap in Finnish Manufacturing Productivity in 1975-2000," ETLA A, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 38.
    8. Askenazy, Philippe & Moreno-Galbis, Eva, 2007. "Technological and Organizational Changes, and Labor Flows: Evidence on French Establishments," IZA Discussion Papers 2549, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:37:y:2005:i:10:p:1115-1133. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.