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The Reallocation of Workers and Jobs in Russian Industry: New Evidence on Measures and Determinants

Author

Listed:
  • Brown, J. David

    () (U.S. Census Bureau)

  • Earle, John S.

    () (George Mason University)

Abstract

Gross job and worker flows in Russian industry are studied using panel data from a recent survey of 530 firms selected through national probability sampling. The data permit an examination of several important measurement issues – including the timing and definition of employment, the roles of split-ups and mergers, and the relative magnitudes of rehiring and new hiring and of quits and layoffs – and they contain a rich set of firm characteristics that may affect job and worker turnover. The results imply that job destruction and worker separation rates in industrial firms rose in the early 1990s, as did job flows as a fraction of worker flows and layoffs as a fraction of separations. By contrast, job creation and worker hiring rates were flat until 1999, the former low and the latter surprisingly high. Heterogeneity in individual firm behavior increased throughout. New firms and old enterprises that have been reorganized display much larger flows compared with unreorganized enterprises. Unions appear to reduce worker flows, but the structure of neither product nor labor markets shows a significant impact. Private ownership has ambiguous effects: insider ownership, particularly by managers, is associated with higher worker flows and excess job reallocation, while outsider ownership, particularly by blockholders, is associated with lower flow rates. A measure of adjustment costs constructed from the worktime necessary to hire and train a new employee is strongly related to variables usually associated with adjustment costs, including worker wage, education, firm size, capital intensity, and labor productivity, but only weakly to job and worker turnover. Little evidence is found that firms’ employment adjustments have become more sensitive to adjustment costs during the transition, but worker and manager ownership are associated with more sensitivity than are other types of ownership.

Suggested Citation

  • Brown, J. David & Earle, John S., 2002. "The Reallocation of Workers and Jobs in Russian Industry: New Evidence on Measures and Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 564, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp564
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mickiewicz, Tomasz & Gerry, Christopher J. & Bishop, Kate, 2005. "Privatisation, corporate control and employment growth: Evidence from a panel of large Polish firms, 1996-2002," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 98-119, March.
    2. Juurikkala, Tuuli & Lazareva, Olga, 2006. "Non-wage benefits, costs turnover, and labor attachment : evidence from Russian firms," BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2006, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    3. Linz, Susan J. & Semykina, Anastasia, 2008. "Attitudes and performance: An analysis of Russian workers," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 694-717, April.
    4. Tuuli Juurikkala & Olga Lazareva, 2012. "Non‐wage benefits, costs of turnover and labour attachment," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 20(1), pages 113-136, January.
    5. Brown, J. David & Earle, John S. & Vakhitov, Volodymyr, 2006. "Wages, layoffs, and privatization: Evidence from Ukraine," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 272-294, June.
    6. John S. Earle & Scott Gehlbach, 2010. ""Mass Privatisation and the Post-Communist Mortality Crisis": Is There Really a Relationship?," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 10-162, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    7. Sandra M. Leitner & Robert Stehrer, 2012. "Labour Hoarding during the Crisis: Evidence for selected New Member States from the Financial Crisis Survey," wiiw Working Papers 84, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    8. Tomasz Marek Mickiewicz & Christopher Gerry & Kate Bishop, 2004. "Inherited labour hoarding, insiders and employment growth. Panel data results: Poland, 1996-2002," UCL SSEES Economics and Business working paper series 37, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES).
    9. Kőrösi, Gábor, 2005. "Vállalati munkahelyteremtés és -rombolás
      [Corporate job creation and job destruction]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 825-845.
    10. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Mika Maliranta, 2005. "Worker inflow, outflow, and churning," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(10), pages 1115-1133.
    11. Lazareva Olga, 2006. "Firm-paid vs. worker-paid on-the-job training in Russia: Determinants and returns," EERC Working Paper Series 06-05e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    12. Vladimir Gimpelson & Rostislav Kapeliushnikov & Anna Lukiyanova, 2010. "Stuck between Surplus and Shortage: Demand for Skills in Russian Industry," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(3), pages 311-332, September.
    13. John Earle, 2012. "Industrial decline and labor reallocation in a transforming economy: Romania in early transition," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-18, December.
    14. John S. Earle & Klara Sabirianova Peter, 2004. "Contract Violations, Neighborhood Effects, And Wage Arrears In Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-708, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    15. Kate Bishop & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2003. "While Labour Hoarding May Be Over, Insiders??? Control Is Not. Determinants Of Employment Growth In Polish Large Firms, 1996-2001," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-593, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    16. Tuuli Juurikkala & Olga Lazareva, 2006. "Non-wage benefits, costs of turnover, and labor attachment: evidence from Russian firms," Working Papers w0062, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    17. Saeed Rasekhi & Saman Ghaderi, 2013. "Marginal Intra-Industry Trade and Employment Reallocation: The Case Study of Iran’s Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 417-429, September.
    18. John S. Earle, 2014. "Impact of privatization on employment and earnings," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 1-93, October.
    19. Brown, J. David & Earle, John S., 2006. "The microeconomics of creating productive jobs : a synthesis of firm-level studies in transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3886, The World Bank.
    20. John S. Earle & Klara Sabirianova Peter, 2006. "Complementarity and Custom in Contract Violation," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 06-129, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    21. Manuel Cabral & Joana Silva, 2006. "Intra-Industry Trade Expansion and Employment Reallocation between Sectors and Occupations," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 142(3), pages 496-520, October.
    22. Merkuryeva, Irina S. & Paramonova, Elena N. & Bitina, Julia M. & Gilchenok, Veronika L., 2006. "Economic analysis based on matched employer-employee data: Methodology of data collection and research," Working Papers 805, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg State University.
    23. J. David Brown & John S. Earle, 2003. "The reallocation of workers and jobs in Russian industry," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 11(2), pages 221-252, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    layoffs; labor turnover; job destruction; job creation; transition; Russia;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J63 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
    • P31 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

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