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The Entry and Exit of Workers and the Growth of Employment: An Analysis of French Establishments

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  • John M. Abowd
  • Patrick Corbel
  • Francis Kramarz

Abstract

Our empirical analyses distinguish between flows of workers, directly measured, and job creation and destruction, again, directly measured. We use a representative sample of all French establishments for 1987 to 1990. Our most important findings are that (1) annual job creation can be characterized as hiring three persons and separating two for each job created in a given year; (2) annual job destruction can be characterized as hiring one person and separating two for each job destroyed in a given year; (3) two-thirds of all hiring are short term contracts and more than half of all separations are due to the end of these short term contracts; (4) when an establishment is shrinking the adjustment is made by reducing entry (short and long contracts, and transfers) and not changing the separation rates; (5) for the highest skill groups ten percent of months with firm-initiated exits also have new hiring in the same skill group and for the lowest skill groups 25% of the months with firm-initiated separations also have new hiring in that skill group; (6) approximately one-third of all short-term employment contracts are converted to long-term contracts at their termination; (7) most worker flows are procyclical; (8) employment adjustment occurs primarily through changes in the entry rates (often of short-term contract workers) and not through the exit rates (except for quits); and (9) the rate of internal promotion into higher skilled positions is about three times the size of net employment changes inside the job category.

Suggested Citation

  • John M. Abowd & Patrick Corbel & Francis Kramarz, 1996. "The Entry and Exit of Workers and the Growth of Employment: An Analysis of French Establishments," NBER Working Papers 5551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5551
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2000. "Job Flows, Worker Flows, and Churning," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 473-502, July.
    2. Dunne, Timothy & Roberts, Mark J & Samuelson, Larry, 1989. "Plant Turnover and Gross Employment Flows in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 48-71, January.
    3. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, January.
    4. Liliane Bonnal & Denis Fougère & Anne Sérandon, 1994. "L'impact des dispositifs d'emploi sur le devenir des jeunes chômeurs : une évaluation économétrique sur données longitudinales," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 115(4), pages 1-28.
    5. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Wolter H. J. Hassink & Jan C. Van Ours, 1996. "Job Turnover and Labor Turnover: A taxinomy of Employment Dynamics," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 41-42, pages 21-40.
    6. Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1990. "Gross Job Creation and Destruction: Microeconomic Evidence and Macroeconomic Implications," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1990, Volume 5, pages 123-186 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1998. "Measuring Gross Worker and Job Flows," NBER Chapters,in: Labor Statistics Measurement Issues, pages 77-122 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1992. "Gross Job Creation, Gross Job Destruction, and Employment Reallocation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(3), pages 819-863.
    9. Jonathan S. Leonard, 1986. "In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: The Extent of Frictional and Structural Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 1979, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. repec:bin:bpeajo:v:26:y:1994:i:1994-3:p:177-248 is not listed on IDEAS
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General

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