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Worker Flows, Job Flows and Firm Wage Policies: An Analysis of Slovenia

Author

Listed:
  • Haltiwanger, John C.

    (University of Maryland)

  • Vodopivec, Milan

    (University of Primorska)

Abstract

Like many transition economies, Slovenia is undergoing profound changes in the workings of the labor market with potentially greater flexibility in terms of both wage and employment adjustment. We investigate the impact of the changing labor market for Slovenia using unique longitudinal matched employer-employee data that permits measurement of employment transitions and wages for workers and links of the workers to the firms with whom they are employed. We can thus measure worker flows and job flows in a comprehensive and integrated manner. We find a high pace of job flows in Slovenia especially for young, small, private and foreign owned firms and for young, less educated workers. While job flows have approached the rates observed in developed market economies, the excess of worker flows above job flows is lower than that observed in market economies. A key factor in the patterns of the worker and job flows is the determination of wages in Slovenia. A base wage schedule provides strict guidelines for minimum wages for different skill categories. However, firms are permitted to offer higher wages to an individual based upon the success of the worker and/or the firm. Our analysis shows that firms deviate from the base wage schedule significantly and that the idiosyncratic wage policies of firms are closely related to the observed pattern of worker and job flows at the firm. Firms with more flexible wages (measured as less compression of wages within the firm) have less employment instability and also are able to improve the match quality of its workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Haltiwanger, John C. & Vodopivec, Milan, 2002. "Worker Flows, Job Flows and Firm Wage Policies: An Analysis of Slovenia," IZA Discussion Papers 569, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp569
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    Cited by:

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    3. Gielen, A. C. & van Ours, J.C., 2006. "Why do Worker-Firm Matches Dissolve?," Other publications TiSEM 8c99a292-9f34-4ce8-8fd9-9, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Peter Huber & Kristin Smeral, 2006. "Measuring worker flows," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(14), pages 1689-1695.
    5. Jan De Loecker & Jozef Konings, 2003. "Creative Destruction and Productivity Growth in an Emerging Economy Evidence from Slovenian Manufacturing," LICOS Discussion Papers 13803, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    6. Jozef Konings & Olga Kupets & Hartmut Lehmann, 2002. "Gross Job Flows in Ukraine: Size, Ownership and Trade Effects," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 521, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    7. Atanas Christev & Olga Kupets & Hartmut Lehmann, 2008. "Trade Liberalisation and Employment Effects in Ukraine," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 50(2), pages 318-340, June.
    8. Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho & Marc-Andreas Muendler & Garey Ramey, 2008. "The Structure of Worker Compensation in Brazil, with a Comparison to France and the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 324-346, May.
    9. Haltiwanger, John C. & Scarpetta, Stefano & Schweiger, Helena, 2006. "Assessing Job Flows across Countries: The Role of Industry, Firm Size and Regulations," IZA Discussion Papers 2450, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Francesco Devicienti & Agata Maida & Paolo Sestito, 2007. "Downward Wage Rigidity in Italy: Micro-Based Measures and Implications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(524), pages 530-552, November.
    11. Hallward-Driemeier, Mary & Rijkers, Bob & Waxman, Andrew, 2011. "Ladies first ? firm-level evidence on the labor impacts of the East Asian crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5789, The World Bank.
    12. Strawinski, Pawel, 2008. "What drives the Unemployment Rate in Poland," MPRA Paper 11372, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Brown, J. David & Earle, John S., 2004. "Economic Reforms and Productivity-Enhancing Reallocation in the Post-Soviet Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1044, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Paweł Strawiński, 2009. "Ins and Outs of Polish Unemployment," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, vol. 1(3), pages 243-259, November.
    15. Tsou, Meng-Wen & Liu, Jin-Tan, 2005. "Wage dispersion and employment turnover in Taiwan," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 408-414, September.
    16. Luz A. Flórez & Leonardo Fabio Morales & Daniel Medina & José Lobo, 2021. "Labor flows across firm size, age, and economic sector in Colombia vs. the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 1569-1600, October.
    17. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Mika Maliranta, 2005. "Worker inflow, outflow, and churning," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(10), pages 1115-1133.
    18. Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho & Marc-Andreas Muendler & Garey Ramey, 2008. "The Structure of Worker Compensation in Brazil, with a Comparison to France and the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 324-346, May.
    19. International Monetary Fund, 2004. "Wage Compression, Employment Restrictions and Unemployment: The Case of Mauritius," IMF Working Papers 2004/205, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Luz Adriana Flórez & Leonardo Morales Z & Daniel Medina & José Lobo C, 2017. "Labour flows across firm´s size, economic sectors and wages in Colombia: evidence from employer-employee linked panel," Borradores de Economia 1013, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
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    22. Jozef Konings & Olga Kupets & Hartmut Lehmann, 2003. "Gross job flows in Ukraine," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 11(2), pages 321-356, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    wage policies; worker flows; job flows;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • P23 - Political Economy and Comparative Economic Systems - - Socialist and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
    • P31 - Political Economy and Comparative Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

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