IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

International student migration to Germany


  • Donata Bessey



This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migration flows significantly. I also provide extensive sensitivity checks and estimates using both the usual log-linearized and a multiplicative specification. The results are quite stable.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Donata Bessey, 2012. "International student migration to Germany," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 345-361, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:42:y:2012:i:1:p:345-361 DOI: 10.1007/s00181-010-0417-0

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," NBER Working Papers 9159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 1999. "Distribution-free estimation of some nonlinear panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 77-97, May.
    3. Rotte, Ralph & Vogler, Michael, 1998. "Determinants of International Migration: Empirical Evidence for Migration from Developing Countries to Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 1920, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Dreher, Axel & Poutvaara, Panu, 2005. "Student Flows and Migration: An Empirical Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 1612, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Axel Dreher & Panu Poutvaara, 2005. "Student Flows and Migration: An Empirical Analysis�," TWI Research Paper Series 8, Thurgauer Wirtschaftsinstitut, Universität Konstanz.
    6. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    7. Mayer, Thierry & Zignago, Soledad, 2006. "Notes on CEPII’s distances measures," MPRA Paper 26469, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Kim, Jinyoung, 1998. "Economic analysis of foreign education and students abroad," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 337-365, August.
    9. Buch, Claudia M. & Kleinert, Jorn & Toubal, Farid, 2004. "The distance puzzle: on the interpretation of the distance coefficient in gravity equations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 293-298, June.
    10. Pedersen, Peder J. & Pytlikova, Mariola & Smith, Nina, 2008. "Selection and network effects--Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1160-1186, October.
    11. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
    12. David Karemera & Victor Iwuagwu Oguledo & Bobby Davis, 2000. "A gravity model analysis of international migration to North America," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(13), pages 1745-1755.
    13. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Applications to Poisson Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 701-720, May.
    14. Choi, E. Kwan & Harrigan, James, 2003. "Handbook of International Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11375, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    15. Edward Baryla & Douglas Dotterweich, 2001. "Student Migration: Do Significant Factors Vary by Region?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 269-280.
    16. Dan Black & Jeffrey Smith & Kermit Daniel, 2005. "College Quality and Wages in the United States," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 6(3), pages 415-443, August.
    17. Kurt Larsen & John P. Martin & Rosemary Morris, 2002. "Trade in Educational Services: Trends and Emerging Issues," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(6), pages 849-868, June.
    18. Ghatak, Subrata & Levine, Paul & Price, Stephen Wheatley, 1996. " Migration Theories and Evidence: An Assessment," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(2), pages 159-198, June.
    19. James Mak & James E.T. Moncur, 2001. "Interstate Migration of College Freshmen: An Economic Analysis," Working Papers 200105, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    20. Mchugh, Richard & Morgan, James N., 1984. "The determinants of interstate student migration: a place-to-place analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 269-278, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Globalization of higher education; International migration; Gravity equation; F 22; I 23;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:42:y:2012:i:1:p:345-361. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.