IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v12y2020i11p4345-d362899.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Potential Early Adopters of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in Spain—Towards a Customer Profile

Author

Listed:
  • Elena Higueras-Castillo

    (Department of Marketing and Market Research, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Granada, Paseo de Cartuja 7, 18011 Granada, Spain)

  • Sebastian Molinillo

    (Department of Business Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Malaga, El Ejido Campus, 29071 Malaga, Spain)

  • J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak

    (Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, Faculty of Business, University of Greenwich, Park Row, London SE10 9LS, UK)

  • Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas

    (Department of Marketing and Market Research, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Granada, Paseo de Cartuja 7, 18011 Granada, Spain)

Abstract

The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) by consumers is regarded as a key strategic goal for the reduction in transport-related air pollution levels. Although sales of EVs continue to rise year on year, generally, the attainment of the strategic goals set by various governments for the adoption of EVs remains a distant target. The purpose of this study is to identify the customer profile of early adopters of EVs in Spain: one of Europe’s largest economies, yet the country with the lowest uptake of EVs at present. The analysis presented here is based on an online survey of 404 potential consumers of EVs in Spain. A cluster analysis of the data was performed based on a set of three socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, and income), one psychographic (green moral obligation—GMO) and two EV attributes (price and driving range). The results of this analysis showed that there exist two segments with respect to higher or lower customer intentions related to the adoption of EVs. These findings represent a theoretical contribution to current understanding of the customer profile of adopters of EVs and will contribute to the development of communication and retail strategies aimed at customers fitting the profile of early adopters of new technologies.

Suggested Citation

  • Elena Higueras-Castillo & Sebastian Molinillo & J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak & Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, 2020. "Potential Early Adopters of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in Spain—Towards a Customer Profile," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(11), pages 1-18, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:11:p:4345-:d:362899
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/11/4345/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/11/4345/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth Gillingham & Karen Palmer, 2014. "Bridging the Energy Efficiency Gap: Policy Insights from Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 8(1), pages 18-38, January.
    2. Gilles Laurent & Raphaelle Lambert-Pandraud, 2010. "Why Do Older Consumers Buy Older Brands? The Role of Attachment and Declining Innovativeness," Post-Print hal-00528378, HAL.
    3. Hidrue, Michael K. & Parsons, George R. & Kempton, Willett & Gardner, Meryl P., 2011. "Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and their attributes," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 686-705, September.
    4. Zhang, Xian & Wang, Ke & Hao, Yu & Fan, Jing-Li & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2013. "The impact of government policy on preference for NEVs: The evidence from China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 382-393.
    5. Higueras-Castillo, Elena & Kalinic, Zoran & Marinkovic, Veljko & Liébana-Cabanillas, Francisco J., 2020. "A mixed analysis of perceptions of electric and hybrid vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    6. Russell Haines & Marc Street & Douglas Haines, 2008. "The Influence of Perceived Importance of an Ethical Issue on Moral Judgment, Moral Obligation, and Moral Intent," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 81(2), pages 387-399, August.
    7. Maria Gracia Rodríguez-Brito & Alfredo J. Ramírez-Díaz & Francisco J. Ramos-Real & Yannick Perez, 2018. "Psychosocial Traits Characterizing EV Adopters’ Profiles: The Case of Tenerife (Canary Islands)," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(6), pages 1-26, June.
    8. Egbue, Ona & Long, Suzanna, 2012. "Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 717-729.
    9. Karplus, Valerie J. & Paltsev, Sergey & Reilly, John M., 2010. "Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(8), pages 620-641, October.
    10. Hoen, Anco & Koetse, Mark J., 2014. "A choice experiment on alternative fuel vehicle preferences of private car owners in the Netherlands," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 199-215.
    11. Zhang, Yong & Yu, Yifeng & Zou, Bai, 2011. "Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7015-7024.
    12. Larson, Paul D. & Viáfara, Jairo & Parsons, Robert V. & Elias, Arne, 2014. "Consumer attitudes about electric cars: Pricing analysis and policy implications," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 299-314.
    13. Javid, Roxana J. & Nejat, Ali, 2017. "A comprehensive model of regional electric vehicle adoption and penetration," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 30-42.
    14. Plötz, Patrick & Schneider, Uta & Globisch, Joachim & Dütschke, Elisabeth, 2014. "Who will buy electric vehicles? Identifying early adopters in Germany," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 96-109.
    15. Kim, Jinhee & Rasouli, Soora & Timmermans, Harry, 2014. "Expanding scope of hybrid choice models allowing for mixture of social influences and latent attitudes: Application to intended purchase of electric cars," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 71-85.
    16. Wang, Shanyong & Li, Jun & Zhao, Dingtao, 2017. "The impact of policy measures on consumer intention to adopt electric vehicles: Evidence from China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 14-26.
    17. Helveston, John Paul & Liu, Yimin & Feit, Elea McDonnell & Fuchs, Erica & Klampfl, Erica & Michalek, Jeremy J., 2015. "Will subsidies drive electric vehicle adoption? Measuring consumer preferences in the U.S. and China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 96-112.
    18. Mohamed, Moataz & Higgins, Chris & Ferguson, Mark & Kanaroglou, Pavlos, 2016. "Identifying and characterizing potential electric vehicle adopters in Canada: A two-stage modelling approach," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 100-112.
    19. Biresselioglu, Mehmet Efe & Demirbag Kaplan, Melike & Yilmaz, Barbara Katharina, 2018. "Electric mobility in Europe: A comprehensive review of motivators and barriers in decision making processes," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 1-13.
    20. Noel, Lance & Papu Carrone, Andrea & Jensen, Anders Fjendbo & Zarazua de Rubens, Gerardo & Kester, Johannes & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2019. "Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid applications: A Nordic choice experiment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 525-534.
    21. Lieven, Theo, 2015. "Policy measures to promote electric mobility – A global perspective," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 78-93.
    22. Vassileva, Iana & Campillo, Javier, 2017. "Adoption barriers for electric vehicles: Experiences from early adopters in Sweden," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 632-641.
    23. Gass, V. & Schmidt, J. & Schmid, E., 2014. "Analysis of alternative policy instruments to promote electric vehicles in Austria," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 96-101.
    24. Campbell, Amy R. & Ryley, Tim & Thring, Rob, 2012. "Identifying the early adopters of alternative fuel vehicles: A case study of Birmingham, United Kingdom," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1318-1327.
    25. Hardman, Scott & Shiu, Eric & Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert, 2016. "Comparing high-end and low-end early adopters of battery electric vehicles," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 40-57.
    26. Gnann, Till & Stephens, Thomas S. & Lin, Zhenhong & Plötz, Patrick & Liu, Changzheng & Brokate, Jens, 2018. "What drives the market for plug-in electric vehicles? - A review of international PEV market diffusion models," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 158-164.
    27. Ozaki, Ritsuko & Sevastyanova, Katerina, 2011. "Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2217-2227, May.
    28. Gabriela D. Oliveira & Luis C. Dias, 2019. "Influence of Demographics on Consumer Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: A Review of Choice Modelling Studies and a Study in Portugal," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-33, January.
    29. Chen, Chien-fei & Zarazua de Rubens, Gerardo & Noel, Lance & Kester, Johannes & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2020. "Assessing the socio-demographic, technical, economic and behavioral factors of Nordic electric vehicle adoption and the influence of vehicle-to-grid preferences," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    30. She, Zhen-Yu & Qing Sun, & Ma, Jia-Jun & Xie, Bai-Chen, 2017. "What are the barriers to widespread adoption of battery electric vehicles? A survey of public perception in Tianjin, China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 29-40.
    31. Egnér, Filippa & Trosvik, Lina, 2018. "Electric vehicle adoption in Sweden and the impact of local policy instruments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 584-596.
    32. Sierzchula, William & Bakker, Sjoerd & Maat, Kees & van Wee, Bert, 2014. "The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 183-194.
    33. Elena Higueras-Castillo & Sebastian Molinillo & J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak & Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, 2019. "Perceived Value and Customer Adoption of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(18), pages 1-15, September.
    34. Tran, Martino & Banister, David & Bishop, Justin D.K. & McCulloch, Malcolm D., 2013. "Simulating early adoption of alternative fuel vehicles for sustainability," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(5), pages 865-875.
    35. Adedamola Adepetu & Srinivasan Keshav, 2017. "The relative importance of price and driving range on electric vehicle adoption: Los Angeles case study," Transportation, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 353-373, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jose Esteves & Daniel Alonso-Martínez & Guillermo de Haro, 2021. "Profiling Spanish Prospective Buyers of Electric Vehicles Based on Demographics," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(16), pages 1-22, August.
    2. Reema Bera & Bhargab Maitra, 2021. "Analyzing Prospective Owners’ Choice Decision towards Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Urban India: A Stated Preference Discrete Choice Experiment," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(14), pages 1-24, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kim, Moon-Koo & Oh, Jeesun & Park, Jong-Hyun & Joo, Changlim, 2018. "Perceived value and adoption intention for electric vehicles in Korea: Moderating effects of environmental traits and government supports," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 799-809.
    2. Priessner, Alfons & Sposato, Robert & Hampl, Nina, 2018. "Predictors of electric vehicle adoption: An analysis of potential electric vehicle drivers in Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 701-714.
    3. Zimm, Caroline, 2021. "Improving the understanding of electric vehicle technology and policy diffusion across countries," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 54-66.
    4. Ye Yang & Zhongfu Tan, 2019. "Investigating the Influence of Consumer Behavior and Governmental Policy on the Diffusion of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(24), pages 1-20, December.
    5. Mohamed, Moataz & Higgins, Christopher D. & Ferguson, Mark & Réquia, Weeberb J., 2018. "The influence of vehicle body type in shaping behavioural intention to acquire electric vehicles: A multi-group structural equation approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 54-72.
    6. Li, Wenbo & Long, Ruyin & Chen, Hong, 2016. "Consumers’ evaluation of national new energy vehicle policy in China: An analysis based on a four paradigm model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 33-41.
    7. Eunsung Kim & Eunnyeong Heo, 2019. "Key Drivers behind the Adoption of Electric Vehicle in Korea: An Analysis of the Revealed Preferences," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(23), pages 1-15, December.
    8. Moon-Koo Kim & Jong-Hyun Park & Kyungsoo Kim & Byoungkyu Park, 2020. "Identifying factors influencing the slow market diffusion of electric vehicles in Korea," Transportation, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 663-688, April.
    9. Hackbarth, André & Madlener, Reinhard, 2018. "Combined Vehicle Type and Fuel Type Choices of Private Households: An Empirical Analysis for Germany," FCN Working Papers 17/2018, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), revised May 2019.
    10. Higueras-Castillo, Elena & Kalinic, Zoran & Marinkovic, Veljko & Liébana-Cabanillas, Francisco J., 2020. "A mixed analysis of perceptions of electric and hybrid vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    11. Kwon, Yeongmin & Son, Sanghoon & Jang, Kitae, 2018. "Evaluation of incentive policies for electric vehicles: An experimental study on Jeju Island," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 404-412.
    12. Harrison, Gillian & Thiel, Christian, 2017. "An exploratory policy analysis of electric vehicle sales competition and sensitivity to infrastructure in Europe," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 165-178.
    13. Langbroek, Joram H.M. & Franklin, Joel P. & Susilo, Yusak O., 2016. "The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 94-103.
    14. Wee, Sherilyn & Coffman, Makena & Allen, Scott, 2020. "EV driver characteristics: Evidence from Hawaii," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 33-40.
    15. Hardman, Scott & Tal, Gil, 2021. "Discontinuance Among California’s Electric Vehicle Buyers: Why are Some Consumers Abandoning Electric Vehicles?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt11n6f4hs, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    16. Li, Wenbo & Long, Ruyin & Chen, Hong & Yang, Tong & Geng, Jichao & Yang, Muyi, 2018. "Effects of personal carbon trading on the decision to adopt battery electric vehicles: Analysis based on a choice experiment in Jiangsu, China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 209(C), pages 478-488.
    17. Li, Wenbo & Long, Ruyin & Chen, Hong & Geng, Jichao, 2017. "A review of factors influencing consumer intentions to adopt battery electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 318-328.
    18. Hardman, Scott, 2019. "Understanding the impact of reoccurring and non-financial incentives on plug-in electric vehicle adoption – A review," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 1-14.
    19. Dong, Xiaoyang & Zhang, Bin & Wang, Bo & Wang, Zhaohua, 2020. "Urban households’ purchase intentions for pure electric vehicles under subsidy contexts in China: Do cost factors matter?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 183-197.
    20. Yang, J. & Chen, F., 2021. "How are social-psychological factors related to consumer preferences for plug-in electric vehicles? Case studies from two cities in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 149(C).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:11:p:4345-:d:362899. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.