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Changes in gender earnings differentials in Bulgaria's transition to a mixed-market economy


  • Lisa Giddings

    () (Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse)


Relying on 1986 and 1993 Bulgarian cross-sectional household surveys, the essay examines evidence of a decrease in gender earnings differentials in the country's transition to a market economy. Women's gains in the early transition are due to both changes in the relative returns to skill and changes in the composition of demand for goods and services. With as many years of education as men, women were more likely to have obtained more general secondary and university degrees than men-degrees experiencing increased remuneration in the transition. Furthermore, labor demand increased the most in predominantly female industries, increasing their relative earnings.

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  • Lisa Giddings, 2002. "Changes in gender earnings differentials in Bulgaria's transition to a mixed-market economy," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 28(4), pages 481-497, Fall.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:28:y:2002:i:4:p:481-497

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
    2. Brown, Charles & Corcoran, Mary, 1997. "Sex-Based Differences in School Content and the Male-Female Wage Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 431-465, July.
    3. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    4. Newell, Andrew & Reilly, Barry, 1996. "The gender wage gap in Russia: Some empirical evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 337-356, October.
    5. Brainerd, Elizabeth, 1998. "Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1094-1116, December.
    6. Jennifer Hunt, 2002. "The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 148-169, January.
    7. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    8. Andrew M. Gill & Duane E. Leigh, 2000. "Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(1), pages 163-181, October.
    9. Blau Francine D & Kahn Lawrence M, 2007. "The Gender Pay Gap," The Economists' Voice, De Gruyter, vol. 4(4), pages 1-6, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "Analyse comparative de la mise en oeuvre du droit à l'égalité de rémunération : modèles et impacts," ILO Working Papers 993920333402676, International Labour Organization.
    2. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2016. "Two tales of contraction: gender wage gap in Georgia before and after the 2008 crisis," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, December.
    3. Axelsen, Dan & Underwood, Daniel A. & Friesner, Dan, 2009. "Cultural filtering in the hiring process and its relationship to welfare reform," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 495-508, June.
    4. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2013. "Evaluating the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia, 2004 - 2011," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_768, Levy Economics Institute.
    5. Pastore Francesco & Verashchagina Alina, 2007. "The gender wage gap in the Republic of Belarus," EERC Working Paper Series 04-133e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    6. repec:ilo:ilowps:399524 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Lehouelleur, Sophie & Beblavý, Miroslav & Maselli,Ilaria, 2015. "How returns from tertiary education differ by field of study: Implications for policy-makers and students," CEPS Papers 10835, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    8. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "A comparative analysis of promoting pay equity : models and impacts," ILO Working Papers 993995243402676, International Labour Organization.
    9. repec:ilo:ilowps:392033 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Earnings; Gender; Women;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing


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