IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

A two-step estimator for a spatial lag model of counts: Theory, small sample performance and an application

  • Lambert, Dayton M.
  • Brown, Jason P.
  • Florax, Raymond J.G.M.

Several spatial econometric approaches are available to model spatially correlated disturbances in count models, but there are at present no structurally consistent count models incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation. A two-step, limited information maximum likelihood estimator is proposed to fill this gap. The estimator is developed assuming a Poisson distribution, but can be extended to other count distributions. The small sample properties of the estimator are evaluated with Monte Carlo experiments. Simulation results suggest that the spatial lag count estimator achieves gains in terms of bias over the aspatial version as spatial lag autocorrelation and sample size increase. An empirical example deals with the location choice of single-unit start-up firms in the manufacturing industry in the US between 2000 and 2004. The empirical results suggest that in the dynamic process of firm formation, counties dominated by firms exhibiting internal increasing returns to scale are at a relative disadvantage even if localization economies are present.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Regional Science and Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 40 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 (July)
Pages: 241-252

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:40:y:2010:i:4:p:241-252
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Schmenner, Roger W. & Huber, Joel C. & Cook, Randall L., 1987. "Geographic differences and the location of new manufacturing facilities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 83-104, January.
  2. Klier, Thomas & McMillen, Daniel P, 2008. "Clustering of Auto Supplier Plants in the United States," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 460-471.
  3. Paulo Guimar�es & Octávio Figueirdo & Douglas Woodward, 2003. "A Tractable Approach to the Firm Location Decision Problem," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 201-204, February.
  4. Henderson, Jason R. & McNamara, Kevin T., 2000. "The Location Of Food Manufacturing Plant Investments In Corn Belt Counties," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 25(02), December.
  5. Blundell, Richard & Griffith, Rachel & Windmeijer, Frank, 2002. "Individual effects and dynamics in count data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 113-131, May.
  6. Josep Maria Arauzo Carod, . "Determinants of industrial location. An application for Catalan municipalities," Studies on the Spanish Economy 138, FEDEA.
  7. Stephan J. Goetz, 1997. "State- and County-Level Determinants of Food Manufacturing Establishment Growth: 1987–93," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 838-850.
  8. Wojan, Timothy R. & McGranahan, David A., 2007. "Ambient Returns: Creative Capital's Contribution to Local Manufacturing Competitiveness," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 36(1), April.
  9. repec:elg:eechap:3625_1 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Smith, Eldon D. & Deaton, Brady J. & Kelch, David R., 1978. "Location Determinants Of Manufacturing Industry In Rural Areas," Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 10(01), July.
  11. Lambert, Dayton M. & McNamara, Kevin T. & Garrett, Megan I., 2006. "An Application of Spatial Poisson Models to Manufacturing Investment Location Analysis," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 38(01), April.
  12. Paulo Guimaraes & Octávio Figueiredo & Douglas Woodward, 2004. "Industrial Location Modeling: Extending the Random Utility Framework," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 1-20.
  13. Edward Glaeser & Janet Kohlhase, 2003. "Cities, regions and the decline of transport costs," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 83(1), pages 197-228, October.
  14. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2007. "HAC estimation in a spatial framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 131-154, September.
  15. Carlson, Virginia, 2000. "Studying Firm Locations: Survey Responses vs. Econometric Models," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 30(1).
  16. Murphy, Kevin M & Topel, Robert H, 2002. "Estimation and Inference in Two-Step Econometric Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 88-97, January.
  17. Bernard Fingleton & Julie Le Gallo, 2008. "Estimating spatial models with endogenous variables, a spatial lag and spatially dependent disturbances: Finite sample properties," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(3), pages 319-339, 08.
  18. Davis, David E. & Schluter, Gerald E., 2005. "Labor-Force Heterogeneity as a Source of Agglomeration Economies in an Empirical Analysis of County-Level Determinants of Food Plant Entry," MPRA Paper 6654, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  19. Timothy J. Bartik, 2002. "Small Business Start-Ups in the United States: Estimates of the Effects of Characteristics of States," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers, in: Norris F. Krueger (ed.), Entrepreneurship: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, volume 0, pages 191-210 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  20. Fotopoulos, Georgios & Louri, Helen, 2000. " Location and Survival of New Entry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 311-21, June.
  21. Hisham S. El-Osta & Ashok K. Mishra & Mitchell J. Morehart, 2007. "Determinants of economic well-being among U.S. farm operator households," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 291-304, 05.
  22. Lambert, Dayton M. & McNamara, Kevin T. & Garrett, Megan I., 2006. "Food Industry Investment Flows: Implications for Rural Development," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 36(2), pages 140-62.
  23. Cletus C. Coughlin & Eran Segev, 1997. "Location determinants of new foreign-owned manufacturing plants," Working Papers 1997-018, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  24. Josep Maria Arauzo Carod & Miguel C. ManjÛn AntolÌn, 2004. "Firm Size and Geographical Aggregation: An Empirical Appraisal in Industrial Location," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3_4), pages 299-312, 04.
  25. Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2005. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521848053.
  26. James P. LeSage & Manfred M. Fischer & Thomas Scherngell, 2007. "Knowledge spillovers across Europe: Evidence from a Poisson spatial interaction model with spatial effects," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 393-421, 08.
  27. Anselin, Luc, 2002. "Under the hood Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 27(3), November.
  28. Todd M. Gabe & Kathleen P. Bell, 2004. "Tradeoffs between Local Taxes and Government Spending as Determinants of Business Location," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 21-41.
  29. Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-33, May.
  30. Pinkse, Joris & Slade, Margaret E., 1998. "Contracting in space: An application of spatial statistics to discrete-choice models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 125-154, July.
  31. Griffith, Daniel A., 2002. "A spatial filtering specification for the auto-Poisson model," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 245-251, July.
  32. G�ran Therborn & K.C. Ho, 2009. "Introduction," City, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 53-62, March.
  33. Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Hendrik Folmer & Sergio J. Rey, 2002. "Specification Searches in Spatial Econometrics: The Relevance of Hendry's Methodology," Urban/Regional 0202001, EconWPA.
  34. Anselin, Luc, 2002. "Under the hood : Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 247-267, November.
  35. Kaiser, Mark S. & Cressie, Noel, 1997. "Modeling Poisson variables with positive spatial dependence," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 423-432, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:40:y:2010:i:4:p:241-252. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.