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Macroeconomic consequences of terrorism in Pakistan


  • Malik, Zahra
  • Zaman, Khalid


The objective of the study examines the macroeconomic consequences of terrorism in Pakistan. The study evaluates the short- and long-run relationship between terrorism and economic factors over a period of 1975–2011. Both objectives have been achieved with the sophisticated econometrics techniques including cointegration theory, Granger causality test and variance decomposition, etc. The result reveals that macroeconomic factors, i.e., population growth, price level, poverty and political instability cause the terrorism incidence in Pakistan. However, income inequality, unemployment and trade openness have no long-run relationship with the terrorism incidence in Pakistan. The study may conclude that, for some how, Pakistan's macroeconomic indicators have significant long-run equilibrium with terrorism incidence. The result of Granger causality indicates that except unemployment, all other macroeconomic indicators have unidirectional causality with terrorism incidence. Unemployment has a bi-directional causality with the terrorism incidence in Pakistan. The results of variance decomposition indicate that there exists statistically significant cointegration among macroeconomic factors and terrorism incidence in Pakistan. Among macroeconomic factors, changes in price level exert the largest influence on terrorism in Pakistan. Contrary, the influence of poverty seems relatively the least contribution level for changes in terrorism incidence in Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Malik, Zahra & Zaman, Khalid, 2013. "Macroeconomic consequences of terrorism in Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1103-1123.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:35:y:2013:i:6:p:1103-1123 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpolmod.2013.08.002

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    Cited by:

    1. Syed Ali Raza & Muhammad Shahbaz & Sudharshan Reddy Paramati, 2017. "Dynamics of Military Expenditure and Income Inequality in Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 131(3), pages 1035-1055, April.
    2. Haider, Murtaza & Anwar, Amar, 2014. "Impact of terrorism on FDI flows to Pakistan," MPRA Paper 57165, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Muhammad Nasir & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2015. "War on terror: Do military measures matter? Empirical analysis of post 9/11 period in Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(5), pages 1969-1984, September.
    4. Ghulam Akhmat & Khalid Zaman & Tan Shukui & Faiza Sajjad, 2014. "Exploring the root causes of terrorism in South Asia: everybody should be concerned," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(6), pages 3065-3079, November.
    5. Yeeles, Adam & Akporiaye, Alero, 2016. "Risk and resilience in the Nigerian oil sector: The economic effects of pipeline sabotage and theft," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 187-196.

    More about this item


    Terrorism; Inflation; Poverty; Cointegration; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity


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