IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecmode/v29y2012i5p1632-1639.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The relationship between agricultural technologies and carbon emissions in Pakistan: Peril and promise

Author

Listed:
  • Zaman, Khalid
  • Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq
  • Ahmad, Mehboob
  • Khilji, Bashir Ahmad

Abstract

The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of agricultural technologies on carbon emissions in Pakistan by using annual data from 1975 to 2010. Data is analyzed by some econometrics techniques including cointegration theory, Granger causality test, variance decomposition, etc. The results reveal that agricultural technologies act as an important driver for increase in carbon emissions in Pakistan. Results indicate that unidirectional causality runs from agriculture machinery to carbon emissions but not vice versa. Agricultural technologies are closely associated with economic growth and carbon emissions in Pakistan. Variance decomposition analysis shows that among all the agricultural technologies, granting subsidies to the agriculture sector have exerts the largest contribution to changes in carbon emissions. Conversely, agricultural irrigated land seems relatively the least contributors on changes in carbon emissions due to infertility of total irrigated land available in Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Zaman, Khalid & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Ahmad, Mehboob & Khilji, Bashir Ahmad, 2012. "The relationship between agricultural technologies and carbon emissions in Pakistan: Peril and promise," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1632-1639.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:29:y:2012:i:5:p:1632-1639
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2012.05.024
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264999312001459
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daron Acemoglu & Philippe Aghion & Leonardo Bursztyn & David Hemous, 2012. "The Environment and Directed Technical Change," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(1), pages 131-166, February.
    2. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Causality, cointegration, and control," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 551-559.
    3. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    4. Tamazian, Artur & Chousa, Juan Piñeiro & Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya, 2009. "Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: Evidence from BRIC countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 246-253, January.
    5. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    6. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    7. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    8. Zaman, Khalid & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Ahmad, Mehboob & Rustam, Rabiah, 2012. "The relationship between agricultural technology and energy demand in Pakistan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 268-279.
    9. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    10. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    11. Matthew A. Cole & Robert J. R. Elliott, 2005. "FDI and the Capital Intensity of “Dirty” Sectors: A Missing Piece of the Pollution Haven Puzzle," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 530-548, November.
    12. World Bank, 2010. "World Development Indicators 2010," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4373, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chuanhe Xiong & Degang Yang & Jinwei Huo, 2016. "Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and LMDI-Based Impact Factor Decomposition of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in Hotan Prefecture, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-14, March.
    2. Chuanhe Xiong & Shuang Chen & Liting Xu, 2020. "Driving factors analysis of agricultural carbon emissions based on extended STIRPAT model of Jiangsu Province, China," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 1401-1416, September.
    3. Khan, Muhammad Azhar & Khan, Muhammad Zahir & Zaman, Khalid & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Zahoor, Hina, 2013. "RETRACTED: Causal links between greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan: A fatal disorder of society," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 166-176.
    4. Dogan, Eyup & Sebri, Maamar & Turkekul, Berna, 2016. "Exploring the relationship between agricultural electricity consumption and output: New evidence from Turkish regional data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 370-377.
    5. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:262:d:65480 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Anam Azam & Muhammad Rafiq & Muhammad Shafique & Muhammad Ateeq & Jiahai Yuan, 2020. "Causality Relationship Between Electricity Supply and Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(4), pages 1-20, February.
    7. Espinosa-Tasón, Jaime & Berbel, Julio & Gutiérrez-Martín, Carlos, 2020. "Energized water: Evolution of water-energy nexus in the Spanish irrigated agriculture, 1950–2017," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 233(C).
    8. Min Su & Rui Jiang & Rongrong Li, 2017. "Investigating Low-Carbon Agriculture: Case Study of China’s Henan Province," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(12), pages 1-14, December.
    9. Mumtaz, Rehma & Zaman, Khalid & Sajjad, Faiza & Lodhi, Muhammad Saeed & Irfan, Muhammad & Khan, Imran & Naseem, Imran, 2014. "Modeling the causal relationship between energy and growth factors: Journey towards sustainable development," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 353-365.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zhang, Yue-Jun, 2011. "The impact of financial development on carbon emissions: An empirical analysis in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2197-2203, April.
    2. Zaman, Khalid & Izhar, Zeeshan & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Ahmad, Mehboob, 2012. "The relationship between financial indicators and human development in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1515-1523.
    3. Malik, Zahra & Zaman, Khalid, 2013. "Macroeconomic consequences of terrorism in Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1103-1123.
    4. Khan, Muhammad Azhar & Khan, Muhammad Zahir & Zaman, Khalid & Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq & Zahoor, Hina, 2013. "RETRACTED: Causal links between greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan: A fatal disorder of society," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 166-176.
    5. Muhammad Khan & Muhammad Khan & Khalid Zaman & Muhammad Khan, 2014. "The evolving role of agricultural technology indicators and economic growth in rural poverty: has the ideas machine broken down?," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 2007-2022, July.
    6. Xu, Haifeng & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2012. "Dynamic linkages of stock prices between the BRICs and the United States: Effects of the 2008–09 financial crisis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 344-352.
    7. Kyriakos Emmanouilidis & Christos Karpetis, 2020. "The Defense–Growth Nexus: A Review of Time Series Methods and Empirical Results," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(1), pages 86-104, January.
    8. Kaminski, Jermain & Hopp, Christian & Tykvová, Tereza, 2019. "New technology assessment in entrepreneurial financing – Does crowdfunding predict venture capital investments?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 287-302.
    9. Neeraj, & Panigrahi, Prasanta K., 2017. "Causality and correlations between BSE and NYSE indexes: A Janus faced relationship," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 481(C), pages 284-313.
    10. Sahbi Farhani & Anissa Chaibi & Christophe Rault, 2014. "A study of CO2 emissions, output,energy consumption, and trade," Working Papers 2014-56, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    11. Tripura Sundari C. U. & Anindita Mitra, 2020. "Development and Degradation: The Nexus between GDP, FDI, and Pollution in India," Emerging Economy Studies, International Management Institute, vol. 6(1), pages 39-49, May.
    12. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh & Zakaria, Muhammad & Hurr, Maryam, 2017. "Carbon emission, energy consumption, trade openness and financial development in Pakistan: A revisit," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 185-192.
    13. Hakimi, Abdelaziz & Hamdi, Helmi, 2016. "Trade liberalization, FDI inflows, environmental quality and economic growth: A comparative analysis between Tunisia and Morocco," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1445-1456.
    14. Nyakundi M. Michieka, 2015. "Short- and Long-Run Analysis of Factors Affecting Electricity Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 639-646.
    15. Hernán Enríquez Sierra & Jacobo Campo Robledo & Antonio Avendaño Arosemena, 2015. "Relaciones regionales en los precios de vivienda nueva en Colombia," Revista Ecos de Economía, Universidad EAFIT, vol. 19(40), pages 25-47, June.
    16. Sudeshna Ghosh, 2019. "Environmental Pollution, Income Inequality, and Household Energy Consumption: Evidence from the United Kingdom," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 10(02), pages 1-31, June.
    17. Duc Khuong Nguyen & Benoît Sévi & Bo Sjö & Gazi Salah Uddin, 2017. "The role of trade openness and investment in examining the energy-growth-pollution nexus: empirical evidence for China and India," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(40), pages 4083-4098, August.
    18. Neeraj & Prasanta K. Panigrahi, 2016. "Causality and Correlations between BSE and NYSE indexes: A Janus Faced Relationship," Papers 1608.07796, arXiv.org.
    19. Chee-Keong Choong & Wai-Ching Poon & Muzafar Shah Habibullah & Zulkornain Yusop, 2003. "The Validity of PPP Theory in ASEAN-Five: Another Look on Cointegration and Panel Data Analysis," International Trade 0309018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Farhani, Sahbi & Chaibi, Anissa & Rault, Christophe, 2014. "CO2 emissions, output, energy consumption, and trade in Tunisia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 426-434.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agricultural technologies; Carbon emissions; Economic growth; Tractors; Pakistan;
    All these keywords.

    Lists

    This item is featured on the following reading lists, Wikipedia, or ReplicationWiki pages:
    1. Recognized plagiarism

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:29:y:2012:i:5:p:1632-1639. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30411 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.