Childcare availability, fertility and female labor force participation in Japan
This paper seeks to address the problems of childcare scarcity, declining fertility rates and work-family conflict faced by the growing female labor force in Japan. Japan’s total fertility rate has been declining since the 1970s and it fell below the replacement level of 1.3 in 2003. Since the 1990s, the Japanese government has implemented pro-natal policies such as childcare market deregulation, childcare center expansion in the Angel Plan and New Angel Plan, and provision of childbirth grants. However, these policies have failed to encourage childbirth. With rising labor force participation among Japanese women, the insufficiency of existing childcare center capacity to accommodate children of working mothers has resulted in the problem of wait-listed children. In addition, the failure of childcare centers to mitigate the conflict between women’s work and child raising duties has discouraged women from childbearing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship and causality between childcare availability (CA), female labor force participation rate (LFPR) and fertility (TFR) in Japan for the period 1971–2009. A bounds test approach to cointegration establishes the existence of long-run equilibrium relations between CA, TFR and LFPR. Applying the Granger causality method, our results show the absence of Granger-causality running from childcare availability to fertility among females aged 30–39. In the long run, our results show that having more children at home does not discourage the female labor force participation. In addition, we find no evidence which suggests that working women tend to have fewer children. Overall, this study suggests the importance of the Japanese childcare system in supporting female employment.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 32 (2014)
Issue (Month): C ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622903|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pau Baizan, 2009. "Regional child care availability and fertility decisions in Spain," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 21(27), pages 803-842, December.
- Del Boca, Daniela, 2002.
"The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy,"
IZA Discussion Papers
427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Daniela Del Boca, 2002. "The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 549-573.
- Karsten Hank & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2000. "Does the availability of childcare influence the employment of mothers? Findings from western Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2000-003, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Massimiliano Bratti, 2003.
"Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, 08.
- Bratti, Massimiliano, 2002. "Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 34, Royal Economic Society.
- Massimiliano BRATTI, 2001. "Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education," Working Papers 154, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Robert McNown & Cristobal Ridao-Cano, 2005. "A time series model of fertility and female labour supply in the UK," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(5), pages 521-532.
- Benjamin Cheng & Robert Hsu & Qiyu Chu, 1997. "The causality between fertility and female labour force participation in Japan," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 113-116.
- Benjamin Cheng, 1996. "An investigation of cointegration and causality between fertility and female labour force participation," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 29-32.
- Yanfei Zhou & Akiko Oishi, 2005. "Underlying Demand for Licensed Childcare Services in Urban Japan ," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 103-119, 03.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Peng, Xiujian, 2007. "Japan's fertility transition: Empirical evidence from the bounds testing approach to cointegration," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 263-278, March.
- Michael Hout, 1978. "The determinants of marital fertility in the united states, 1968–1970: Inferences from a dynamic model," Demography, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 139-159, May.
- Mishra, Vinod & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "Female labor force participation and total fertility rates in the OECD: New evidence from panel cointegration and Granger causality testing," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 48-64, January.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
- Patricia Boling, 2008. "Demography, Culture, and Policy: Understanding Japan's Low Fertility," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 34(2), pages 307-326.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2010.
"A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010,"
NBER Working Papers
15902, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013. "A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema, 2005. "Estimating income and price elasticities of imports for Fiji in a cointegration framework," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 423-438, May.
- Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters, in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wong, Rebeca & Levine, Ruth E, 1992. "The Effect of Household Structure on Women's Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence from Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 89-102, October.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Kerry Richter & Chai Podhisita & Aphichat Chamratrithirong & Kusol Soonthorndhada, 1994. "The impact of child care on fertility in urban Thailand," Demography, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 651-662, November.
- Ronald R. Rindfuss & David K. Guilkey & S. Philip Morgan & ØYstein Kravdal, 2010. "Child‐Care Availability and Fertility in Norway," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 36(4), pages 725-748, December.
- Maarten Van Ham & Clara H. Mulder, 2005. "Geographical Access To Childcare And Mothers' Labour-Force Participation," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 96(1), pages 63-74, 02.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Nakamura, Jiro & Ueda, Atsuko, 1999. "On the Determinants of Career Interruption by Childbirth among Married Women in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 73-89, March.
- Yukiko Asai, 2014. "Parental Leave Reforms and the Employment of New Mothers: Quasi-experimental Evidence from Japan," ISS Discussion Paper Series (series F) f169, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo.
- Benjamin Cheng, 1999. "Cointegration and causality between fertility and female labor participation in Taiwan: A multivariate approach," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 27(4), pages 422-434, December.
- Chris Herbst & Burt Barnow, 2008. "Close to Home: A Simultaneous Equations Model of the Relationship Between Child Care Accessibility and Female Labor Force Participation," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 128-151, March.
- J. Stycos & Robert Weller, 1967. "Female working roles and fertility," Demography, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 210-217, March.
- Guillermo Cruces & Sebastian Galiani, 2005.
"Fertility and Female Labor Supply in Latin America: New Causal Evidence,"
Labor and Demography
- Cruces, Guillermo & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007. "Fertility and female labor supply in Latin America: New causal evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 565-573, June.
- Sebastian Galiani & Guillermo Cruces, 2005. "Fertility and Female Labor Supply in Latin America: New Causal Evidence," Working Papers 84, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Jun 2007.
- J.D. Vlasblom & J.J. Schippers, 2004. "Increases in Female Labour Force Participation in Europe: Similarities and Differences," Working Papers 04-12, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Willis, Robert J, 1987.
"What Have We Learned from the Economics of the Family?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 68-81, May.
- Robert J. Willis, . "What Have We Learned from the Economics of the Family?," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 87-1, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2006. "Female labour force participation, fertility and infant mortality in Australia: some empirical evidence from Granger causality tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 563-572.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2006. "Higher Education, Real Income and Real Investment in China: Evidence From Granger Causality Tests," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 107-125.
- Karen Mason & Karen Kuhlthau, 1992. "The perceived impact of child care costs on women’s labor supply and fertility," Demography, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 523-543, November.
- Hall, Alastair R, 1994. "Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series with Pretest Data-Based Model Selection," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(4), pages 461-70, October.
- Ross Stolzenberg & Linda Waite, 1984. "Local labor markets, children and labor force participation of wives," Demography, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 157-170, May.
- A. Chevalier & T. K. Viitanen, 2002. "The causality between female labour force participation and the availability of childcare," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(14), pages 915-918.
- Benjamin Cheng, 1996. "The causal relationship between African American fertility and female labor supply: Policy implications," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 77-88, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:32:y:2014:i:c:p:71-85. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.