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Intensive margins, extensive margins, and spousal allowances in the Japanese system of personal income taxes: A discrete choice analysis

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  • Bessho, Shun-ichiro
  • Hayashi, Masayoshi

Abstract

This study explores the effects of spousal allowances (SAs) in the Japanese system of personal income taxes, using the micro-simulation method based on the discrete choice model of labor supply. Our simulations show that the complete abolishment of SAs would increase the average annual working hours of all wives by 1.6% only, which is smaller than previous findings in the Japanese literature. If we focus on households benefiting from SAs, the rate of increase in the wife’s working hours is even smaller (.1%). In addition, one particular case of SA reduction leads to a decrease in the labor supply of wives. We argue that these unexpected results are due to our explicit consideration of the fixed cost of labor market participations, which has been previously ignored in the Japanese studies.

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  • Bessho, Shun-ichiro & Hayashi, Masayoshi, 2014. "Intensive margins, extensive margins, and spousal allowances in the Japanese system of personal income taxes: A discrete choice analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 162-178.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:162-178
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jjie.2014.06.001
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    1. Kiho Muroga, 2020. "Work or housework? Mincer’s hypothesis and the labor supply elasticity of married women in Japan," The Japanese Economic Review, Springer, vol. 71(2), pages 303-347, April.
    2. KITAO Sagiri & MIKOSHIBA Minamo, 2022. "Why Women Work the Way They Do in Japan: Roles of Fiscal Policies," Discussion papers 22016, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Tomoki Ogasa, 2019. "Income Redistribution Effect of a Shift from Income Deduction to Tax Credit -Discrete Choice Model-Based Simulation Incorporating Labor Supply-," Discussion papers ron313, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan.
    4. Gunji, Hiroshi & Miyazaki, Kenji, 2017. "Why do Japanese women work so much less than Japanese men? A business cycle accounting approach," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 45-55.
    5. Nobuko Nagase, 2018. "Has Abe's Womanomics Worked?," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 13(1), pages 68-101, January.
    6. Bessho, Shun-ichiro & Hayashi, Masayoshi, 2014. "Intensive margins, extensive margins, and spousal allowances in the Japanese system of personal income taxes: A discrete choice analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 162-178.
    7. Miyazaki, Takeshi & Ishida, Ryo, 2022. "Estimating the elasticity of taxable income: Evidence from top Japanese taxpayers," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    8. Yokoyama, Izumi, 2018. "How the tax reform on the special exemption for spouse affected the work-hour distribution," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 69-84.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female labor supply; Discrete choice model; Tax reform; Japan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

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