In-Work Policies in Europe: Killing Two Birds with One Stone?
Earning an income is probably the best way of avoiding poverty and social exclusion, hence the recent trend of promoting employment through in-work transfers in OECD countries. Yet, the relative consensus on the need for ‘making work pay’ policies is muddied by a number of concerns relative to the design of the reforms and the treatment of the family dimension. Relying on EUROMOD, a EU-15 integrated tax-benefit microsimulation software, we simulate two types of in-work benefits. The first one is means-tested on family income, in the fashion of the British Working Family Tax Credit, while the second is a purely individualized policy. Both reforms are built on the same cost basis (after behavioral responses) and simulated in three European countries which experience severe poverty traps, namely Finland, France and Germany. The potential labor supply responses to the reforms and the subsequent redistributive impacts are assessed for each country using a structural discrete-choice model. We compare how both reforms achieve poverty reduction and social inclusion (measured as the number of transitions into activity). All three countries present different initial conditions, including institutional environment, existing tax-benefit systems and distribution of incomes and wages. These sources of heterogeneity are exploited together with different labor supply sensitivities to explain the cross-country differences in the impact of the reforms.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Heckman, James, 2013.
"Sample selection bias as a specification error,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Atkinson, A. B. & Bouguignon, F. & Chiappori, P. A., 1988. "What do we learn about tax reform from international comparisons? France and Britain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 343-352, March.
- Bargain, Olivier, 2005.
"On Modeling Household Labor Supply with Taxation,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1455, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mantovani, Daniela & Sutherland, Holly, 2003. "Social indicators and other income statistics using the EUROMOD baseline: a comparison with Eurostat and National Statistics," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- François Bourguignon & Pierre-André Chiappori, 1998. "Fiscalité et redistribution," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 13(1), pages 3-64.
- repec:pri:crcwel:wp00-12-christopher is not listed on IDEAS
- Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 1996.
"Welfare Transfers in Two-Parent Families: Labor Supply and Welfare Participation under AFDC-UP,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 295-332, March.
- Hilary Hoynes, 1993. "Welfare Transfers in Two-Parent Families: Labor Supply and Welfare Participation Under AFDC-UP," NBER Working Papers 4407, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Haan & Viktor Steiner, 2004. "Distributional and Fiscal Effects of the German Tax Reform 2000: A Behavioral Microsimulation Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 419, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Duncan, Alan & Giles, Christopher, 1996. "Labour Supply Incentives and Recent Family Credit Reforms," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 142-55, January.
- Stefan Boeters & Reinhold Schnabel & Nicole Gürtzgen, 2006.
"Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis,"
German Economic Review,
Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7, pages 363-388, November.
- Schnabel, Reinhold & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Boeters, Stefan, 2003. "Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-70, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Nada Eissa & Hilary Williamson Hoynes, 1998.
"The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples,"
NBER Working Papers
6856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- N. Eissa & H. W. Hoynes, . "The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1194-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Eissa, Nada & Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 1999. "The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1024b9z8, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Nada Eissa & Hilary Williamson Hoynes, 2000. "The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples," Public Economics 9912001, EconWPA.
- Ilmakunnas, Seija & Pudney, Stephen, 1990. "A model of female labour supply in the presence of hours restrictions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 183-210, March.
- François Bourguignon & Thierry Magnac, 1990. "Labor Supply and Taxation in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 358-389.
- Olivier Bargain, 2004. "Aides au retour à l'emploi et activité des femmes en couple," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 88(1), pages 59-87.
- Euwals, R.W. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1996.
"Desired and Actual Labour Supply of Unmarried Men and Women in the Netherlands,"
1996-23, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Euwals, Rob & van Soest, Arthur, 1999. "Desired and actual labour supply of unmarried men and women in the Netherlands," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 95-118, March.
- van Soest, A.H.O. & Das, J.W.M., 2000.
"Family Labor Supply and Proposed Tax Reforms in the Netherlands,"
2000-20, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- van Soest, A.H.O. & Das, J.W.M., 2000. "Family labor supply and proposed tax reforms in the Netherlands," Other publications TiSEM 57d9aef0-cc35-4fb2-9be2-d, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Bonin, Holger & Kempe, Wolfram & Schneider, Hilmar, 2002. "Household Labor Supply Effects of Low-Wage Subsidies in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 637, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Herwig Immervoll & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2003.
"Welfare Benefits and Work Incentives. An Analysis of the Distribution of Net Replacement Rates in Europe using EUROMOD, a Multi- Country Microsimulation Model,"
Labor and Demography
- Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2002. "Welfare benefits and work incentives: an analysis of the distribution of net replacement rates in Europe using EUROMOD, a multi-country microsimulation model," EUROMOD Working Papers EM4/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Amedeo Spadaro, 2005.
"Micro-simulation and Normative Policy Evaluation: An Application to Some EU Tax Benefits Systems,"
Journal of Public Economic Theory,
Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 7(4), pages 593-622, October.
- Amedeo spadaro, 2003. "Micro-simulation and Normative Policy Evaluation: an Application to some EU Tax-Benefits System," DELTA Working Papers 2003-23, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Immervoll, Herwig & Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen & Kreiner, Claus Thustrup & Saez, Emmanuel, 2005.
"Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Herwig Immervoll & Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Emmanuel Saez, 2007. "Welfare reform in European countries: a microsimulation analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(516), pages 1-44, 01.
- Immervoll, Herwig & Kleven, Henrik & Kreiner, Claus Thustrup & Saez, Emmanuel, 2004. "Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Micro-Simulation Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 4324, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Immervoll, Herwig & Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen & Kreiner, Claus Thustrup & Saez, Emmanuel, 2004. "Welfare reform in European countries: a micro-simulation analysis," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Herwig Immervoll & Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Emmanuel Saez, 2005. "Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
- Callan, T. & Dex, S. & Smith, N. & Vlasblom, J.D., 1999. "Taxation of Spouses: a Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Maaried Women's Labour Supply," Papers 99-02, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Andrea Bassanini & Jørn Henrik Rasmussen & Stefano Scarpetta, 1999. "The Economic Effects of Employment-Conditional Income Support Schemes for the Low-Paid: An Illustration from a CGE Model Applied to Four OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 224, OECD Publishing.
- Eissa, Nada & Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 2004. "Taxes and the labor market participation of married couples: the earned income tax credit," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 1931-1958, August.
- Richard Blundell & François Laisney, 1988. "A Labour Supply Model for Married Women in France, Taxation, Hours Constraints and Job Seekers," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 11, pages 41-71.
- Karen Christopher & Paula England & Sara McLanahan & Katherin Ross & Tim Smeeding, 2000. "Gender Inequality in Poverty in Affluent Nations: The Role of Single Motherhood and the State," Working Papers 976, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
- Michele Pellizzari, 2004.
"Unemployment Duration and the Interactions Between Unemployment Insurance and Social Assistance,"
272, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Pellizzari, Michele, 2006. "Unemployment duration and the interactions between unemployment insurance and social assistance," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 773-798, December.
- Herwig Immervoll, 2003.
"The Distribution Of Average And Marginal Effective Tax Rates In European Union Member States,"
- Immervoll, Herwig, 2002. "The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Julian McCrae & Costas Meghir, 2000. "The labour market impact of the working families’ tax credit," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(1), pages 75-103, March.
- Tim Callan & Arthur Van Soest, 1996.
"Family Labour Supply and Taxes in Ireland,"
WP078, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Arthur van Soest, 1995. "Structural Models of Family Labor Supply: A Discrete Choice Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 63-88.
- Petri Böckerman & Markus Jäntti, 2005. "Is Variation in Hours of Work Driven by Supply or Demand? Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing Industries," Labor and Demography 0505012, EconWPA.
- Heckman, James J, 1993. "What Has Been Learned about Labor Supply in the Past Twenty Years?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 116-21, May.
- Bourguignon, F. & O'Donoghue, C. & Sastre-Descals, J. & Spadara, A. & Utili, F., 1997.
"Eur3: A Prototype European Tax-Benefit Model,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9723, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Gurgand, M. & Margolis, D., 2001.
"RMI et revenus du travail : une evaluation des gains financiers a l'emploi,"
Dossiers de recherche-
09, Centre d'etudes de l'emploi.
- Marc Gurgand & David Margolis, 2001. "RMI et revenus du travail : une évaluation des gains financiers à l'emploi," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 346(1), pages 103-122.
- Marc Gurgand & David Margolis, 2001. "RMI et revenus de travail : une évaluation des gains financier à l'emploi," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00353839, HAL.
- Blundell, Richard & Macurdy, Thomas, 1999.
"Labor supply: A review of alternative approaches,"
Handbook of Labor Economics,
in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1559-1695
- Emmanuel Saez, 2002. "Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive versus Extensive Labor Supply Responses," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(3), pages 1039-1073.
- Peter Haan, 2004. "Discrete Choice Labor Supply: Conditional Logit vs. Random Coefficient Models," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 394, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Daniel McFadden & Kenneth Train, 2000. "Mixed MNL models for discrete response," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(5), pages 447-470.
- Philippe Choné & David le Blanc & Isabelle Robert-Bobée, 2003. "Female Labor Supply and Child Care in France," CESifo Working Paper Series 1059, CESifo Group Munich.
- Isabelle Terraz & Olivier Bargain, 2003. "Évaluation et mise en perspective des effets incitatifs et redistributifs de la Prime pour l’emploi," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 160(4), pages 121-147.
- Guy Laroque & Bernard Salanié, 2000. "Une décomposition du non-emploi en France," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 331(1), pages 47-66.
- Ugo Colombino & Steinar Strøm & Rolf Aaberge, 2000. "Labor supply responses and welfare effects from replacing current tax rules by a flat tax: Empirical evidence from Italy, Norway and Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(4), pages 595-621.
- Martin, John P. & Grubb, David, 2001. "What works and for whom: a review of OECD countries' experiences with active labour market policies," Working Paper Series 2001:14, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
- Karen Christopher & Paula England & Sara McLanahan & Katherin Ross Phillips & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2000. "Gender Inequality in Poverty in Affluent Nations: The Role of Single Motherhood and the State," JCPR Working Papers 108, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-66, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1445. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.