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The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States

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  • Immervoll, Herwig

Abstract

Macro-based summary indicators of effective tax burdens cannot provide information on the level or distribution of the marginal effective tax rates thought to influence household behaviour. They also do not capture differences in effective tax rates facing different subgroups of the population. I use EUROMOD, an EU-wide tax-benefit microsimulation model, to compute distributions of average and marginal effective tax rates across the household population in fourteen European Union Member States. Using different definitions of ‘net taxes’, the tax base and the unit of analysis I present a range of measures showing the contribution of the tax-benefit system to household incomes; average effective tax rates applicable to income from labour; and marginal effective tax rates faced by working men and women. In a second step, these measures are broken down to separately analyse the influence of each type of tax- benefit instrument. The results show that measures of effective tax rates vary considerably depending on incomes, labour market situations and family circumstances. Using single averages or macro-based indicators will therefore provide an inappropriate picture of tax burdens faced by large parts of the population.
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  • Immervoll, Herwig, 2002. "The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:ese:emodwp:em2-02
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Herwig Immervoll & Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Emmanuel Saez, 2007. "Welfare reform in European countries: a microsimulation analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(516), pages 1-44, January.
    2. Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomäki & Herwig Immervoll & Dominique Paturot, 2003. "Indicators of unemployment and low-wage traps (marginal effective tax rates on labour)," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 197, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    3. Bargain, Olivier & Orsini, Kristian, 2006. "In-work policies in Europe: Killing two birds with one stone?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 667-697, December.
    4. Jiøí Veèerník, 2006. "Income Taxes and Social Benefits among Czech Employees - Changes since 1989 and a Cross-national Comparison (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 56(1-2), pages 2-17, January.
    5. Bruno, VAN DER LINDEN, 2005. "Equilibrium Evaluation of Active Labor Market Programmes Enhancing Matching Effectiveness," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2005007, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
    6. Amedeo Spadaro, 2008. "Optimal taxation, social contract and the four worlds of welfare capitalism," Working Papers 98, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    7. Olivier Bargain & Amedeo Spadaro, 2008. "Optimal taxation, social contract and the four worlds of welfare capitalism," Working Papers 200816, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    8. Kamil Galuscak & Jan Pavel, 2007. "Unemployment and Inactivity Traps in the Czech Republic: Incentive Effects of Policies," Working Papers 2007/9, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    9. Immervoll, Herwig, 2004. "Average and marginal effective tax rates facing workers in the EU: a micro-level analysis of levels, distributions and driving factors (revised version of EM2/02)," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Dieckhoener, Caroline & Peichl, Andreas, 2009. "Financing Social Security: Simulating Different Welfare State Systems for Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 4135, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2003. "Employment transitions in 13 European countries: levels, distributions and determining factors of net replacement rates," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access

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