The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States
Macro-based summary indicators of effective tax burdens cannot provide information on the level or distribution of the marginal effective tax rates thought to influence household behaviour. They also do not capture differences in effective tax rates facing different subgroups of the population. I use EUROMOD, an EU-wide tax-benefit microsimulation model, to compute distributions of average and marginal effective tax rates across the household population in fourteen European Union Member States. Using different definitions of ‘net taxes’, the tax base and the unit of analysis I present a range of measures showing the contribution of the tax-benefit system to household incomes; average effective tax rates applicable to income from labour; and marginal effective tax rates faced by working men and women. In a second step, these measures are broken down to separately analyse the influence of each type of tax- benefit instrument. The results show that measures of effective tax rates vary considerably depending on incomes, labour market situations and family circumstances. Using single averages or macro-based indicators will therefore provide an inappropriate picture of tax burdens faced by large parts of the population.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
|Date of creation:||01 Oct 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: RAB Butler Building, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, ESSEX C04 3SQ|
Phone: +44 (0)1206 872957
Fax: +44 (0)1206 873151
Web page: https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/euromod/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Creedy, John & Duncan, Alan, 2002. " Behavioural Microsimulation with Labour Supply Responses," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 1-39, February.
- G. Carone & A. Salomäki, 2001.
"Reforms in tax-benefit systems in order to increase emplyoment incentives in the EU,"
European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015
160, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomaki, 2004. "Reforms In Tax-Benefit Systems In Order To Increase Employment Incentives In The Eu," Labor and Demography 0410005, EconWPA.
- Frédéric Berger & Monique Borsenberger & Herwig Immervoll & Julie Lumen & Bertrand Scholtus & Klaas DeVos, 2003.
"The Impact Of Tax-Benefit Systems On Lowincome Households In The Benelux Countries. A Simulation Approach Using Synthetic Datasets,"
0302003, EconWPA, revised 07 Feb 2003.
- Berger, Frederic & Borsenberger, Monique & Immervoll, Herwig & Lumen, Julie & Scholtus, Bertrand & de Vos, Klaas, 2001. "The Impact of Tax-Benefit Systems on Low-Income Households in the Benelux Countries. A Simulation Approach Using Synthetic Datasets," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Robert J. Barro & Chaipat Sahasakul, 1983.
"Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax,"
NBER Working Papers
1214, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J & Sahasakul, Chaipat, 1986. "Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(4), pages 555-66, October.
- Barro, Robert J. & Sahasakul, Chaipat, 1986. "Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax," Scholarly Articles 3451298, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Sutherland, Holly & Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 1999. "An introduction to EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM0/99, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- P. B. Sørensen, 1997. "Public finance solutions to the European unemployment problem?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 12(25), pages 221-264, October.
- Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2001.
"Imputation of gross amounts from net incomes in household surveys: an application using EUROMOD,"
EUROMOD Working Papers
EM1/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Herwig Immervoll & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2003. "Imputation of Gross Amounts from Net Incomes in Household Surveys. An Application using EUROMOD," Computational Economics 0302001, EconWPA.
- Mercader-Prats, Magda, 1997. "On the distributive and incentive effects of the Spanish income tax: A comparison of 1980 and 1994," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 609-617, April.
- Thomas Bauer & Regina Riphahn, 2002.
"Employment effects of payroll taxes - an empirical test for Germany,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 865-876.
- Bauer, Thomas K. & Riphahn, Regina T., 1998. "Employment Effects of Payroll Taxes - An Empirical Test for Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 11, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Easterly, William & Rebelo, Sergio, 1992.
"Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1050, The World Bank.
- Easterly, William & Rebelo, Sergio, 1993. "Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 409-417, April.
- Enrique G. Mendoza & Assaf Razin & Linda L. Tesar, 1994.
"Effective Tax Rates in Macroeconomics: Cross-Country Estimates of Tax Rates on Factor Incomes and Consumption,"
NBER Working Papers
4864, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mendoza, Enrique G. & Razin, Assaf & Tesar, Linda L., 1994. "Effective tax rates in macroeconomics: Cross-country estimates of tax rates on factor incomes and consumption," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-323, December.
- Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005.
"Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market,"
Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, June.
- Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 1991. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198284345, June.
- Sutherland, H. & Taylor, R. & Gomulka, J., 2001.
"Combining Household Income and Expenditure Data in Policy Simulations,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0110, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Sutherland, Holly & Taylor, Rebecca & Gomulka, Joanna, 2002. "Combining Household Income and Expenditure Data in Policy Simulations," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(4), pages 517-36, December.
- O'Donoghue, Cathal & Sutherland, Holly, 1999. "Accounting for the Family in European Income Tax Systems," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 565-98, September.
- Dilnot, Andrew W & Kay, John A & Keen, Michael, 1990. "Allocating Taxes to Households: A Methodology," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 210-30, January.
- Atkinson, Tony, 2002. "Atkinson: evaluation of national action plans on social inclusion: the role of EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Padovano, Fabio & Galli, Emma, 2001. "Tax Rates and Economic Growth in the OECD Countries (1950-1990)," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(1), pages 44-57, January.
- Hilary Hoynes & Richard Blundell, 2001.
"Has "In-Work" Benefit Reform Helped the Labour Market?,"
NBER Working Papers
8546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard Blundell & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2004. "Has 'In-Work' Benefit Reform Helped the Labor Market?," NBER Chapters, in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 411-460 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pudney, Stephen & Sutherland, Holly, 1994. "How reliable are microsimulation results? : An analysis of the role of sampling error in a U.K. tax-benefit model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 327-365, March.
- Ohlsson, H. & Agell, J. & Lindh, T., 1995.
"Growth and the Public Sector: A Critical Review Essay,"
1995-09, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Agell, Jonas & Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1997. "Growth and the public sector: A critical review essay," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 33-52, February.
- Daveri, Francesco & Tabellini, Guido, 1997.
"Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1681, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, 2000. "Unemployment, growth and taxation in industrial countries," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 47-104, 04.
- Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, . "Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries," Working Papers 122, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Atkinson, Tony, 2002. "Evaluation of national action plans on social inclusion: the role of EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM4/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Willi Leibfritz & John Thornton & Alexandra Bibbee, 1997. "Taxation and Economic Performance," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 176, OECD Publishing.
- Stern, Nicholas, 1987. "The effects of taxation, price control and government contracts in oligopoly and monopolistic competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 133-158, March.
- David Carey & Harry Tchilinguirian, 2000. "Average Effective Tax Rates on Capital, Labour and Consumption," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 258, OECD Publishing.
- Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Supply-Side Economics: An Analytical Review," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 293-316, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ese:emodwp:em2-02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paul Groves)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.