IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpco/0302001.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Imputation of Gross Amounts from Net Incomes in Household Surveys. An Application using EUROMOD

Author

Listed:
  • Herwig Immervoll

    (University of Cambridge and European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research - Vienna)

  • Cathal O'Donoghue

    (University of Cambridge and National University of Ireland - Galway)

Abstract

Household micro-datasets often do not contain information on gross incomes. We present an algorithm which exploits the tax- and contribution rules built into tax-benefit models to convert net income information into gross amounts. Using EUROMOD, a multi-country taxbenefit model covering all fifteen countries of the European Union, net-to-gross conversions can be performed for a large number of countries utilising existing models of relevant fiscal rules. The algorithm takes into account all relevant complexities of tax- and contribution rules and can, thus, produce much more accurate results than statistical models which estimate netto- gross ratios using only a few explanatory variables. Among the features of the algorithm is the ability to distinguish between different individuals in the same household. Even if individuals’ incomes are taxed jointly, the algorithm is able to approximate separate net-togross factors for individuals in the same fiscal unit. This is possible since EUROMOD can accurately assign people to appropriate fiscal units. In addition, it is in certain cases possible to produce different net-to-gross ratios for different income components. We undertake a case study to illustrate the importance of deriving separate net-to-gross factors for different individuals within a household/fiscal unit and for different income sources of the same individual.

Suggested Citation

  • Herwig Immervoll & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2003. "Imputation of Gross Amounts from Net Incomes in Household Surveys. An Application using EUROMOD," Computational Economics 0302001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpco:0302001
    Note: Type of Document - ; figures: included. EUROMOD web-site:
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de/econ-wp/comp/papers/0302/0302001.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sutherland, Holly, 2001. "EUROMOD: an integrated European benefit-tax model: final report," EUROMOD Working Papers EM9/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Sutherland, Holly & Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 1999. "An introduction to EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM0/99, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    3. Julian McCrae, 1999. "The Development and Uses of Tax and Benefit Simulation Models," Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, vol. 2(1), January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Feres, Patricio & Immervoll, Herwig & Lietz, Christine & Levy, Horacio & Mantovani, Daniela & Sutherland, Holly, 2002. "Indicators for social inclusion in the European Union: how responsive are they to macro-level changes?," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Andrea Albarea & Michele Bernasconi & Cinzia Di Novi & Anna Marenzi & Dino Rizzi & Francesca Zantomio, 2015. "Accounting for Tax Evasion Profiles and Tax Expenditures in Microsimulation Modelling. The BETAMOD Model for Personal Income Taxes in Italy," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 8(3), pages 99-136.
    3. Mantovani, D. & Papadopoulos, Fotis & Sutherland, Holly & Tsakloglou, P., 2005. "Pension incomes in the European Union: policy reform strategies in comparative perspective," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    4. Lustig Nora, 2016. "Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 17-60, June.
    5. Fernando Di Nicola & Giorgio Mongelli & Simone Pellegrino, 2015. "The static microsimulation model of the Italian Department of Finance: Structure and first results regarding income and housing taxation," ECONOMIA PUBBLICA, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2015(2), pages 125-157.
    6. Mantovani, Daniela & Sutherland, Holly, 2003. "Social indicators and other income statistics using the EUROMOD baseline: a comparison with Eurostat and National Statistics," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    7. Popova, Daria, 2012. "Constructing the tax-benefit micro simulation Model For Russia – RUSMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM7/12, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    8. Immervoll, Herwig, 2002. "The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    9. Immervoll, Herwig, 2004. "Average and marginal effective tax rates facing workers in the EU: a micro-level analysis of levels, distributions and driving factors (revised version of EM2/02)," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2001. "Towards a multi purpose framework for tax benefit microsimulation," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    11. Morini, Matteo & Pellegrino, Simone, 2018. "Personal income tax reforms: A genetic algorithm approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 264(3), pages 994-1004.
    12. Pierfederico Asdrubali & Simone Tedeschi & Luigi Ventura, 2020. "Household risk‐sharing channels," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 11(3), pages 1109-1142, July.
    13. Stefano Boscolo, 2020. "On the Horizontal Inequity Effect of the Erosion of the PIT Base: The Case of Italy," Department of Economics (DEMB) 0176, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    14. Nora Lustig, 2016. "Fiscal Policy, Inequality and the Poor in the Developing World," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 23, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    15. Vaqar Ahmed & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2009. "Redistributive Effect of Personal Income Taxation in Pakistan," Working Papers 0143, National University of Ireland Galway, Department of Economics, revised 2009.
    16. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2005. "Replacement incomes and taxes: a distributional analysis for the EU-15 countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    17. Nora Lustig, 2015. "Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa," Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 1331, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
    18. Dieter Vandelannoote & André Decoster & Toon Vanheukelom & Gerlinde Verbist, 2016. "Evaluating The Quality Of Gross Incomes In SILC: Compare Them With Fiscal Data And Re-calibrate Them Using EUROMOD," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 9(3), pages 5-34.
    19. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2004. "Redistributive effect and progressivity of taxes: an international comparison across the EU using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    20. M Luisa Maitino & Letizia Ravagli & Nicola Sciclone, 2017. "Microreg: A Traditional Tax-Benefit Microsimulation Model Extended To Indirect Taxes And In Kind Transfers," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 10(1), pages 5-38.
    21. Sutherland, Holly, 2001. "EUROMOD: an integrated European benefit-tax model: final report," EUROMOD Working Papers EM9/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    22. Decoster, André & Vandelannoote, Dieter & Vanheukelom, Toon & Verbist, Gerlinde, 2014. "Gross incomes in the Belgian SILC dataset: an analysis by means of EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM16/14, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    23. Lietz, Christine & Mantovani, Daniela, 2006. "Lessons from building and using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/06, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    24. Stefano Boscolo, 2020. "On the Horizontal Inequity Effect of the Erosion of the PIT Base: The Case of Italy," Department of Economics 0176, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2001. "Towards a multi purpose framework for tax benefit microsimulation," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Herwig Immervoll & Horacio Levy & José Ricardo Nogueira & Cathal O´Donoghue & Rozane Bezerra de Siqueira, 2005. "The Impact of Brazil´s Tax-Benefit System on Inequality and Poverty," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 117, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Mantovani, Daniela & Sutherland, Holly, 2003. "Social indicators and other income statistics using the EUROMOD baseline: a comparison with Eurostat and National Statistics," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    4. Levy, Horacio & Lietz, Christine & Sutherland, Holly, 2006. "A basic income for Europe's children?," ISER Working Paper Series 2006-47, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    5. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2004. "Redistributive effect and progressivity of taxes: an international comparison across the EU using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    6. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2002. "Welfare benefits and work incentives: an analysis of the distribution of net replacement rates in Europe using EUROMOD, a multi-country microsimulation model," EUROMOD Working Papers EM4/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    7. Miles Corak & Christine Lietz & Holly Sutherland, 2005. "The Impact of Tax and Transfer Systems on Children in the European Union," Papers inwopa05/30, Innocenti Working Papers.
    8. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2005. "Replacement incomes and taxes: a distributional analysis for the EU-15 countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    9. Levy, Horacio & Lietz, Christine & Sutherland, Holly, 2006. "Alternative Tax-Benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the UK," Economics Series 185, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    10. Lietz, Christine & Sutherland, Holly, 2005. "Social indicators and other income statistics using EUROMOD: an assessment of the 2001 Baseline and Changes 1998-2001," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    11. Lietz, Christine & Mantovani, Daniela, 2006. "Lessons from building and using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/06, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    12. Holly Sutherland & Christine Lietz & Horacio Levy, 2005. "Alternative Tax-benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom," Papers inwopa05/33, Innocenti Working Papers.
    13. Paulus, Alari & Lelkes, Orsolya & Cok, Mitja & Kump, Nataša & Hegedus, Péter & Võrk, Andres & Szivós, Péter & Kralik, Silja, 2009. "Flat tax reform in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of alternative scenarios in Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia, using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM9/09, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    14. Herwig Immervoll & Horacio Levy & Christine Lietz & Daniela Mantovani & Cathal O’Donoghue & Holly Sutherland & Gerlinde Verbist, 2006. "Household Incomes and Redistribution in the European Union: Quantifying the Equalizing Properties of Taxes and Benefits," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Dimitri B. Papadimitriou (ed.), The Distributional Effects of Government Spending and Taxation, chapter 5, pages 135-165, Palgrave Macmillan.
    15. Olivier Bargain & Tim Callan, 2010. "Analysing the effects of tax-benefit reforms on income distribution: a decomposition approach," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(1), pages 1-21, March.
    16. Dolls, Mathias & Fuest, Clemens & Peichl, Andreas, 2012. "Automatic stabilizers and economic crisis: US vs. Europe," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(3), pages 279-294.
    17. Andreas Peichl & Nico Pestel & Sebastian Siegloch, 2013. "Ist Deutschland wirklich so progressiv? Einkommensumverteilung im europäischen Vergleich," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 82(1), pages 111-127.
    18. Elschner, Christina & Schwager, Robert, 2006. "A simulation method to measure the tax burden on highly skilled manpower," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 50, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    19. Anthony Barnes Atkinson, 2005. "EUROMOD and the Development of EU Social Policy," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 467, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    20. Kristian Orsini, 2007. "Is Belgium "Making Work Pay" ?," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(2), pages 193-220.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Microsimulation; Imputation; Income; Net/Gross;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • C63 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computational Techniques

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpco:0302001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: EconWPA (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.