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The Impact of Tax and Transfer Systems on Children in the European Union

Author

Listed:
  • Miles Corak
  • Christine Lietz
  • Holly Sutherland

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of fiscal policy on the economic resources available to children, and on the child poverty rate. A static microsimulation model specifically designed for the purposes of comparative fiscal analysis in the European Union, EUROMOD, is used to study the age incidence of government taxes and transfers in 2001 in 15 EU countries. Three related questions are addressed. First, what priorities are currently embodied in government budgets across age groups, and in particular to what degree do cash transfer and tax systems benefit children relative to older groups?; what fraction of the needs of children are supported by elements of the tax and transfer systems directed explicitly to them?; what impact do measures of public resources for children have on child poverty rates?

Suggested Citation

  • Miles Corak & Christine Lietz & Holly Sutherland, 2005. "The Impact of Tax and Transfer Systems on Children in the European Union," Papers inwopa05/30, Innocenti Working Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucf:inwopa:inwopa05/30
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Anthony Barnes Atkinson, 2005. "EUROMOD and the Development of EU Social Policy," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 467, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. Wen Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2005. "Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty in Rich Countries since 1990," LIS Working papers 405, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    3. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    4. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2004. "Redistributive effect and progressivity of taxes: an international comparison across the EU using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    5. Willem Adema, 1999. "Net Social Expenditure," OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers 39, OECD Publishing.
    6. Lietz, Christine & Sutherland, Holly, 2005. "Social indicators and other income statistics using EUROMOD: an assessment of the 2001 Baseline and Changes 1998-2001," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    7. Ruth Hancock & Stephen Pudney & Geraldine Barker & Monica Hernandez & Holly Sutherland, 2004. "The Take-Up of Multiple Means-Tested Benefits by British Pensioners: Evidence from the Family Resources Survey," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 25(3), pages 279-303, September.
    8. Matsaganis, Manos & O'Donoghue, Cathal & Levy, Horacio & Coromaldi, Manuela & Mercader-Prats, M. & Rodrigues, Carlos Farinha & Toso, Stefano & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2004. "Child poverty and family transfers in Southern Europe," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    9. Verbist, Gerlinde, 2005. "Replacement incomes and taxes: a distributional analysis for the EU-15 countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/05, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Bernd Raffelhuschen & Laurence J. Kotlikoff, 1999. "Generational Accounting around the Globe," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 161-166, May.
    11. Mantovani, Daniela & Sutherland, Holly, 2003. "Social indicators and other income statistics using the EUROMOD baseline: a comparison with Eurostat and National Statistics," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    12. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2003. "Employment transitions in 13 European countries: levels, distributions and determining factors of net replacement rates," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    13. Callan, Tim & Sutherland, Holly, 1997. "The impact of comparable policies in European countries: Microsimulation approaches," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 627-633, April.
    14. Wen-Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2008. "Child poverty and changes in child poverty," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 45(3), pages 537-553, August.
    15. Esther Duflo, 2000. "Child Health and Household Resources in South Africa: Evidence from the Old Age Pension Program," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 393-398, May.
    16. Christopher Heady & Theodore Mitrakos & Panos Tsakloglou, 2001. "The distributional impact of social transfers in the European Union: evidence from the ECHP," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 547-565., December.
    17. Atkinson, Tony & Cantillon, Bea & Marlier, Eric & Nolan, Brian, 2002. "Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199253494.
    18. Ermisch, John, 1989. "Intergenerational Transfers in Industrialised Countries: Effects of Age Distribution and Economic Institutions," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 1(4), pages 269-284.
    19. repec:ucf:inreca:inreca05/9 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Sutherland, Holly, 2001. "EUROMOD: an integrated European benefit-tax model: final report," EUROMOD Working Papers EM9/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    21. Sutherland, Holly & Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 1999. "An introduction to EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM0/99, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Miles Corak & Michael Fertig & Marcus Tamm, 2008. "A Portrait Of Child Poverty In Germany," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(4), pages 547-571, December.
    2. Marx, Ive & Vanhille, Josefine & Verbist, Gerlinde, 2011. "Combating In-Work Poverty in Continental Europe: An Investigation Using the Belgian Case," IZA Discussion Papers 6067, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Ive Marx & Sarah Marchal & Brian Nolan, 2012. "GINI DP 56: Mind the Gap: Net Incomes of Minimum Wage Workers in the EU and the US," GINI Discussion Papers 56, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    4. Lina Salanauskaite & Verbist, G. (Gerlinde), 2011. "GINI DP 25: Is the “Neighbour’s” Lawn Greener? Comparing Family Support in Lithuania and Four Other NMS," GINI Discussion Papers 25, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    5. Baclet, Alexandre & Dell, Fabien & Wrohlich, Katharina, 2005. "Income Taxation and Household Size: Would French Family Splitting Make German Families Better Off?," IZA Discussion Papers 1894, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Angeles Sánchez & María Navarro, 2021. "Public Policies of Welfare State and Child Poverty in the European Union," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(5), pages 1-17, March.
    7. Louise Sheiner, 2009. "Intergenerational aspects of health care," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2009-38, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Ive Marx & Brian Nolan & Javier Olivera, 2014. "The Welfare State and Anti-Poverty Policy in Rich Countries," Working Papers 1403, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    9. Dang, Thai-Thanh & Immervoll, Herwig & Mantovani, D. & Orsini, Kristian & Sutherland, Holly, 2006. "An age perspective on economic well-being and social protection in nine OECD countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/06, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Alexandre Baclet & Fabien Dell & Viktor Steiner & Katharina Wrohlich, 2005. "Verteilungseffekte der staatlichen Familienförderung: ein empirischer Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich ; Kurzexpertise ; Forschungsprojekt im Auftrag der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Forschungs," DIW Berlin: Politikberatung kompakt, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, volume 9, number pbk9.
    11. Francesco Figari & Alari Paulus & Holly Sutherland, 2009. "Measuring the size and impact of public cash support for children in cross-national perspective," Working Papers 024, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    12. Holly Sutherland & Christine Lietz & Horacio Levy, 2005. "Alternative Tax-benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom," Papers inwopa05/33, Innocenti Working Papers.
    13. Lietz, Christine & Mantovani, Daniela, 2006. "Lessons from building and using EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM5/06, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    14. Levy, Horacio & Lietz, Christine & Sutherland, Holly, 2006. "Alternative Tax-Benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the UK," Economics Series 185, Institute for Advanced Studies.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    child poverty; child related policies;

    JEL classification:

    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

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