IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpla/0410005.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Reforms In Tax-Benefit Systems In Order To Increase Employment Incentives In The Eu

Author

Listed:
  • Giuseppe Carone

    (European Commission-DG ECFIN)

  • Aino Salomaki

    (European Commission-DG ECFIN)

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the role of tax and benefit systems in the context of the functioning of the labour markets and review recent progress made by EU Member States in reforming tax and benefit systems with a view to increasing economic incentives for higher employment and job creation. On the basis of the most recent comparable data and indicators, we try to assess whether concrete measures are being taken by Member States to alleviate the tax pressure on labour and especially on the low paid. We also examine benefit systems (especially unemployment benefit systems) with a view to evaluating recent reforms to increase employment incentives. Our main conclusions are that while Member States have started to ease the tax burden on labour, progress on reforms has been unequal between tax and benefit systems: the emphasis has clearly been on the tax side while benefit reforms have mostly been relatively minor, and without adequate attention to the interaction between tax and benefit schemes. In view of the goal of full employment, to which the Union and the Member States are committed, it has become more urgent to speed up reforms of tax and benefit systems in order to increase labour supply and reduce structural unemployment. Further reforms aimed at making work pay should take a more comprehensive approach. This approach could help to move people from benefit dependency to work, while preserving an adequate level of social protection for those in need.

Suggested Citation

  • Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomaki, 2004. "Reforms In Tax-Benefit Systems In Order To Increase Employment Incentives In The Eu," Labor and Demography 0410005, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0410005
    Note: Type of Document - pdf
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/lab/papers/0410/0410005.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Isabelle Joumard, 2003. "Tax systems in European Union countries," OECD Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2002(1), pages 91-151.
    2. Blanchard, Olivier & Wolfers, Justin, 2000. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 1-33, March.
    3. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173.
    4. Blundell, Richard & Macurdy, Thomas, 1999. "Labor supply: A review of alternative approaches," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1559-1695 Elsevier.
    5. Snower, Dennis J, 1995. "Evaluating Unemployment Policies: What Do the Underlying Theories Tell Us?," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 110-135, Spring.
    6. Alesina, Alberto & Perotti, Roberto, 1997. "The Welfare State and Competitiveness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 921-939, December.
    7. Pissarides, Christopher A., 1998. "The impact of employment tax cuts on unemployment and wages; The role of unemployment benefits and tax structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 155-183, January.
    8. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
    9. Blank, Rebecca M. & Card, David & Robins, Philip K., 1999. "Financial Incentives for Increasing Work and Income Among Low-Income Families," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt2f15x7sg, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    10. Gruber, Jonathan, 1997. "The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 72-101, July.
    11. Blau, Francine D. & Kahn, Lawrence M., 1999. "Institutions and laws in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 25, pages 1399-1461 Elsevier.
    12. Andrea Bassanini & Jørn Henrik Rasmussen & Stefano Scarpetta, 1999. "The Economic Effects of Employment-Conditional Income Support Schemes for the Low-Paid: An Illustration from a CGE Model Applied to Four OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 224, OECD Publishing.
    13. John P Martin, 1998. "What Works Among Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence from OECD Countries' Experiences," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Guy Debelle & Jeff Borland (ed.), Unemployment and the Australian Labour Market Reserve Bank of Australia.
    14. P. B. Sørensen, 1997. "Public finance solutions to the European unemployment problem?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 12(25), pages 221-264, October.
    15. Atkinson, Anthony B & Micklewright, John, 1991. "Unemployment Compensation and Labor Market Transitions: A Critical Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 29(4), pages 1679-1727, December.
    16. Cahuc, Pierre & Lehmann, Etienne, 2000. "Should unemployment benefits decrease with the unemployment spell?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 135-153, July.
    17. Timo Tyrväinen, 1995. "Real Wage Resistance and Unemployment: Multivariate Analysis of Cointegrating Relations in 10 OECD Countries," OECD Jobs Study Working Papers 10, OECD Publishing.
    18. Olympia Bover & Manuel Arellano & Samuel Bentolila, 2002. "Unemployment Duration, Benefit Duration and the Business Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(479), pages 223-265, April.
    19. Johnson, G.E. & Layard, P.R.G., 1987. "The natural rate of unemployment: Explanation and policy," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 921-999 Elsevier.
    20. Willi Leibfritz & John Thornton & Alexandra Bibbee, 1997. "Taxation and Economic Performance," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 176, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. European Commission, 2005. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2005 edition," Taxation trends 2005, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    2. European Commission, 2010. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2010 edition," Taxation trends 2010, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    3. Leoš Vítek, 2011. "Fiscal Instruments of a Support of the Families with Children and their Changes in Developed Countries," European Financial and Accounting Journal, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2011(4), pages 60-84.
    4. European Commission, 2011. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2011 edition," Taxation trends 2011, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    5. Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomäki & Herwig Immervoll & Dominique Paturot, 2003. "Indicators of unemployment and low-wage traps (marginal effective tax rates on labour)," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 197, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    6. Christian Baretti & Doina Radulescu & Michael Stimmelmayr, 2008. "Die Unternehmensteuerreform 2008: Deutschlands Antwort auf die Globalisierung - oder doch ein Stückwerk?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 61(02), pages 30-38, January.
    7. Doina Maria Rădulescu & Michael Stimmelmayr, 2008. "Die Unternehmensteuerreform 2008: Eine Reformalternative für Deutschland?," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9(1), pages 19-36, February.
    8. Immervoll, Herwig, 2002. "The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States," EUROMOD Working Papers EM2/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    9. Immervoll, Herwig, 2004. "Average and marginal effective tax rates facing workers in the EU: a micro-level analysis of levels, distributions and driving factors (revised version of EM2/02)," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    10. Kaitila, Ville, 2006. "Productivity, Hours Worked, and Tax/Benefit Systems in Europe and Beyond," Discussion Papers 1015, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    11. Deborah Mabbett & Waltraud Schelkle, 2007. "Bringing Macroeconomics Back into the Political Economy of Reform: the Lisbon Agenda and the 'Fiscal Philosophy' of EMU," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45, pages 81-103, March.
    12. Brian Ardy & Iain Begg & Waltraud Schelkle & Francisco Torres, 2002. "How will EMU affect cohesion?," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;German National Library of Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 37(6), pages 300-314, November.
    13. Luigi, Bernardi, 2003. "Tax systems and tax reforms in Europe: Rationale and open issue for more radical reforms," MPRA Paper 18041, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Andrzej TABEAU & Geert WOLTJER, "undated". "The Impact of Different Agricultural Labor Market Specifications on Agricultural Employment and Income Development under Different Agricultural Policies," EcoMod2009 21500086, EcoMod.
    15. European Commission, 2008. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2008 edition," Taxation trends 2008, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    16. Alho, Kari E. O., 2008. "Tax/benefit Systems and Growth Potential of the EU," Discussion Papers 1122, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    17. Kamila Fialová & Martina Mysíková, 2009. "Labour Market Participation: The Impact of Social Benefits in the Czech Republic and Selected European Countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2009(3), pages 235-250.
    18. European Commission, 2007. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2007 edition," Taxation trends 2007, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    19. Radulescu, Doina & Stimmelmayr, Michael, 2010. "The impact of the 2008 German corporate tax reform: A dynamic CGE analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 454-467, January.
    20. Alho, Kari O. E., 2006. "Labour Market Institutions and the Effectiveness of Tax and Benefit Policies in Enchancing Employment: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Discussion Papers 1008, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    21. Christian Baretti & Doina Radulescu & Michael Stimmelmayr, 2008. "The Corporate Tax Reform of 2008: Germany’s Answer to Globalization – or Just Patchwork?," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 6(3), pages 50-59, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Reforms; Tax; tax-benefit sytems; unemployment benefits; labour market reforms; METRs unemployment trap; poverty trap;

    JEL classification:

    • J - Labor and Demographic Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0410005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA). General contact details of provider: http://econwpa.repec.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.