The Distribution Of Average And Marginal Effective Tax Rates In European Union Member States
Macro-based summary indicators of effective tax burdens cannot provide information on the level or distribution of the marginal effective tax rates thought to influence household behaviour. They also do not capture differences in effective tax rates facing different subgroups of the population. I use EUROMOD, an EU-wide tax-benefit microsimulation model, to compute distributions of average and marginal effective tax rates across the household population in fourteen European Union Member States. Using different definitions of ‘net taxes’, the tax base and the unit of analysis I present a range of measures showing the contribution of the tax-benefit system to household incomes; average effective tax rates applicable to income from labour; and marginal effective tax rates faced by working men and women. In a second step, these measures are broken down to separately analyse the influence of each type of tax- benefit instrument. The results show that measures of effective tax rates vary considerably depending on incomes, labour market situations and family circumstances. Using single averages or macro-based indicators will therefore provide an inappropriate picture of tax burdens faced by large parts of the population.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Frédéric Berger & Monique Borsenberger & Herwig Immervoll & Julie Lumen & Bertrand Scholtus & Klaas DeVos, 2003.
"The Impact Of Tax-Benefit Systems On Lowincome Households In The Benelux Countries. A Simulation Approach Using Synthetic Datasets,"
0302003, EconWPA, revised 07 Feb 2003.
- Berger, Frederic & Borsenberger, Monique & Immervoll, Herwig & Lumen, Julie & Scholtus, Bertrand & de Vos, Klaas, 2001. "The Impact of Tax-Benefit Systems on Low-Income Households in the Benelux Countries. A Simulation Approach Using Synthetic Datasets," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Robert J. Barro & Chaipat Sahasakul, 1983.
"Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax,"
NBER Working Papers
1214, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J & Sahasakul, Chaipat, 1986. "Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(4), pages 555-566, October.
- Barro, Robert J. & Sahasakul, Chaipat, 1986. "Average Marginal Tax Rates from Social Security and the Individual Income Tax," Scholarly Articles 3451298, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Richard Blundell & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2004.
"Has 'In-Work' Benefit Reform Helped the Labor Market?,"
in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 411-460
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hilary Hoynes & Richard Blundell, 2001. "Has "In-Work" Benefit Reform Helped the Labour Market?," NBER Working Papers 8546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pudney, Stephen & Sutherland, Holly, 1994. "How reliable are microsimulation results? : An analysis of the role of sampling error in a U.K. tax-benefit model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 327-365, March.
- Thomas Bauer & Regina Riphahn, 2002.
"Employment effects of payroll taxes - an empirical test for Germany,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 865-876.
- Bauer, Thomas K. & Riphahn, Regina T., 1998. "Employment Effects of Payroll Taxes - An Empirical Test for Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 11, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sutherland, H. & Taylor, R. & Gomulka, J., 2001.
"Combining Household Income and Expenditure Data in Policy Simulations,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0110, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Sutherland, Holly & Taylor, Rebecca & Gomulka, Joanna, 2002. "Combining Household Income and Expenditure Data in Policy Simulations," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(4), pages 517-536, December.
- Atkinson, Tony, 2002. "Evaluation of national action plans on social inclusion: the role of EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM4/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, 2000.
"Unemployment, growth and taxation in industrial countries,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 47-104, 04.
- Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, "undated". "Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries," Working Papers 122, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Daveri, Francesco & Tabellini, Guido, 1997. "Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 1681, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2001.
"Imputation of gross amounts from net incomes in household surveys: an application using EUROMOD,"
EUROMOD Working Papers
EM1/01, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Herwig Immervoll & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2003. "Imputation of Gross Amounts from Net Incomes in Household Surveys. An Application using EUROMOD," Computational Economics 0302001, EconWPA.
- P. B. Sørensen, 1997. "Public finance solutions to the European unemployment problem?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 12(25), pages 221-264, October.
- Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Supply-Side Economics: An Analytical Review," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 293-316, April.
- Padovano, Fabio & Galli, Emma, 2001. "Tax Rates and Economic Growth in the OECD Countries (1950-1990)," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(1), pages 44-57, January.
- Creedy, John & Duncan, Alan, 2002. " Behavioural Microsimulation with Labour Supply Responses," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 1-39, February.
- Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomaki, 2004.
"Reforms In Tax-Benefit Systems In Order To Increase Employment Incentives In The Eu,"
Labor and Demography
- G. Carone & A. Salomäki, 2001. "Reforms in tax-benefit systems in order to increase emplyoment incentives in the EU," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 160, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Easterly, William & Rebelo, Sergio, 1993.
"Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 409-417, April.
- Easterly, William & Rebelo, Sergio, 1992. "Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1050, The World Bank.
- Ohlsson, H. & Agell, J. & Lindh, T., 1995.
"Growth and the Public Sector: A Critical Review Essay,"
1995-09, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Agell, Jonas & Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1997. "Growth and the public sector: A critical review essay," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 33-52, February.
- Sutherland, Holly & Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 1999. "An introduction to EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM0/99, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- O'Donoghue, Cathal & Sutherland, Holly, 1999. "Accounting for the Family in European Income Tax Systems," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 565-598, September.
- Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 1991.
"Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market,"
Oxford University Press, number 9780198284345, December.
- Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, December.
- Mendoza, Enrique G. & Razin, Assaf & Tesar, Linda L., 1994.
"Effective tax rates in macroeconomics: Cross-country estimates of tax rates on factor incomes and consumption,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-323, December.
- Enrique G. Mendoza & Assaf Razin & Linda L. Tesar, 1994. "Effective Tax Rates in Macroeconomics: Cross-Country Estimates of Tax Rates on Factor Incomes and Consumption," NBER Working Papers 4864, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Willi Leibfritz & John Thornton & Alexandra Bibbee, 1997. "Taxation and Economic Performance," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 176, OECD Publishing.
- Atkinson, Tony, 2002. "Atkinson: evaluation of national action plans on social inclusion: the role of EUROMOD," EUROMOD Working Papers EM1/02, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Mercader-Prats, Magda, 1997. "On the distributive and incentive effects of the Spanish income tax: A comparison of 1980 and 1994," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 609-617, April.
- David Carey & Harry Tchilinguirian, 2000. "Average Effective Tax Rates on Capital, Labour and Consumption," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 258, OECD Publishing.
- Dilnot, Andrew W & Kay, John A & Keen, Michael, 1990. "Allocating Taxes to Households: A Methodology," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 210-230, January.
- Stern, Nicholas, 1987. "The effects of taxation, price control and government contracts in oligopoly and monopolistic competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 133-158, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwppe:0302005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.