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The causality between female labour force participation and the availability of childcare


  • A. Chevalier
  • T. K. Viitanen


It is typically found that the labour force participation of women is negatively affected by the presence of young children. This paper focuses on the causality, in the sense of Granger's definition, between the participation of mothers of young children and childcare provision. It is found that childcare Granger causes participation without feedback, which supports the claim that women could be constrained in their participation by the lack of childcare facilities. The absence of a feedback mechanism raises the issue of childcare supply not reacting to market mechanisms.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Chevalier & T. K. Viitanen, 2002. "The causality between female labour force participation and the availability of childcare," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(14), pages 915-918.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:9:y:2002:i:14:p:915-918 DOI: 10.1080/13504850210138469

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Masako Oyama, 2006. "Measuring cost of children using equivalence scale on Japanese panel data," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(7), pages 409-415.
    2. András Gábos, 2013. "GINI DP 76: Successful policy mixes to tackle child poverty: an EU-wide comparison," GINI Discussion Papers 76, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    3. Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V. & Tavares, Jose, 2003. "Women Prefer Larger Governments: Female Labor Supply and Public Spending," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp433, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    4. Rim Berahab & Zineb Bouba & Pierre-Richard Agénor, 2017. "Egalité de genre, politiques publiques et croissance économique au Maroc," Books & Reports, OCP Policy Center, number 13, December.
    5. Vinod Mishra & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2006. "The Relationship Between Female Labour Force Participation And Fertility In G7 Countries: Evidence From Panel Cointegration And Granger Causality," Monash Economics Working Papers 13/06, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    6. Donna Feir & Jasmin Thomas, 2017. "The Impact of Introducing Formal Childcare Services on Labour Force Participation in Inuit Nunangat," Department Discussion Papers 1702, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    7. Lee, Grace H.Y. & Lee, Sing Ping, 2014. "Childcare availability, fertility and female labor force participation in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 71-85.
    8. Tirthatanmoy Das & Solomon W. Polachek, 2015. "Unanticipated Effects Of California'S Paid Family Leave Program," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 619-635, October.
    9. Paulo Reis Mourao, 2013. "Women Out, Children Out: The Effect of Female Labor on Portuguese Preschool Enrollment Rates," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 49(S1), pages 49-62, January.
    10. Junyi Zhang & Lili Xu & Akimasa Fujiwara, 2012. "Developing an integrated scobit-based activity participation and time allocation model to explore influence of childcare on women’s time use behaviour," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 125-149, January.
    11. Florence Jaumotte, 2003. "Female Labour Force Participation: Past Trends and Main Determinants in OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 376, OECD Publishing.
    12. Suwastika Naidu, 2016. "Does Human Development Influence Women’s Labour Force Participation Rate? Evidences from the Fiji Islands," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 127(3), pages 1067-1084, July.
    13. Hongbin Li & Xianguo Yao & Junsen Zhang & Li-An Zhou, 2005. "Parental childcare and children's educational attainment: evidence from China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(18), pages 2067-2076.
    14. Edwin van Gameren & Ingrid Ooms, 2009. "Childcare and labor force participation in the Netherlands: the importance of attitudes and opinions," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 395-421, December.
    15. Florence Jaumotte, 2005. "Les femmes sur le marché du travail : Évidence empirique sur le rôle des politiques économiques et autres déterminants dans les pays de l'OCDE," Revue économique de l'OCDE, Éditions OCDE, vol. 2003(2), pages 57-123.
    16. Ulrike Jäger, 2010. "Working or stay-at-home mum? The influence of family benefits and religiosity," ifo Working Paper Series 84, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    17. repec:zbw:espost:169352 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Cristina Borra, 2010. "Childcare cost and Spanish mother’s labour force participation," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 194(3), pages 9-40, October.
    19. Monika Bütler, 2007. "Arbeiten lohnt sich nicht - ein zweites Kind noch weniger. Zu den Auswirkungen einkommensabhängiger Tarife auf das (Arbeitsmarkt-) Verhalten der Frauen," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8(1), pages 1-19, January.
    20. Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2005. "Labor Supply and Child Care Costs: The Effect of Rationing," Labor and Demography 0510016, EconWPA.
    21. Colm Harmon & Claire Finn & Arnaud Chevalier & Tarja Viitanen, 2006. "The economics of early childhood care and education : technical research paper for the National Economic and Social Forum," Open Access publications 10197/671, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    22. Del Boca, Daniela & Locatelli, Marilena & Vuri, Daniela, 2004. "Child Care Choices by Italian Households," IZA Discussion Papers 983, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    23. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2006. "The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former EU-15," DULBEA Working Papers 0026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    24. Ömer Limanlı, 2015. "Gender Based Wage Gap in Turkey," EY International Congress on Economics II (EYC2015), November 5-6, 2015, Ankara, Turkey 22, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association.
    25. Anna Lovasz & Agnes Szabo-Morvai, 2013. "Does Childcare Matter for Maternal Labor Supply? Pushing the limits of the Regression Discontinuity Framework," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1313, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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