IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/iburev/v26y2017i5p991-1008.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

International work experience: Is it really accelerating the way to the management board of MNCs?

Author

Listed:
  • Schmid, Stefan
  • Wurster, Dennis J.

Abstract

International work experience is often claimed to be a prerequisite for managers in an MNC. This paper investigates how international work experience affects those managers who reach upper echelons. Drawing on both human capital theory and elite theory, we argue that stays abroad not only have beneficial, but also adverse effects on managers’ ascent to the top. By analysing the careers of 212 management board members from Germany, we find that once a certain threshold of international work experience is exceeded, being away from home impedes managers’ long-term career advancement. However, it is not only longer stays abroad that show a negative time effect; we are also able to reveal that being in countries with high geographic and cultural distance to the home country significantly decelerates managers’ speed of being appointed to the management board. Our findings demonstrate that conflicting interests exist between MNCs and high potentials who consider an international career. We stress that these conflicts call for being solved in managerial practice.

Suggested Citation

  • Schmid, Stefan & Wurster, Dennis J., 2017. "International work experience: Is it really accelerating the way to the management board of MNCs?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 991-1008.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:5:p:991-1008
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.03.006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593117301889
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.03.006?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Heather Berry & Mauro F Guillén & Nan Zhou, 2010. "An institutional approach to cross-national distance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(9), pages 1460-1480, December.
    2. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
    3. Markus M. schmid & Heinz Zimmermann, 2008. "Should Chairman and CEO be Separated? Leadership Structure and Firm Performance in Switzerland," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 60(2), pages 182-204, April.
    4. Georgakakis, Dimitrios & Dauth, Tobias & Ruigrok, Winfried, 2016. "Too much of a good thing: Does international experience variety accelerate or delay executives’ career advancement?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 425-437.
    5. Ren, Hong & Yunlu, Dilek G. & Shaffer, Margaret & Fodchuk, Katherine M., 2015. "Expatriate success and thriving: The influence of job deprivation and emotional stability," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 69-78.
    6. van Veen, Kees & Sahib, Padma Rao & Aangeenbrug, Evelien, 2014. "Where do international board members come from? Country-level antecedents of international board member selection in European boards," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 407-417.
    7. Cerdin, Jean-Luc & Brewster, Chris, 2014. "Talent management and expatriation: Bridging two streams of research and practice," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 245-252.
    8. Cappellen, Tineke & Janssens, Maddy, 2005. "Career paths of global managers: Towards future research," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 348-360, November.
    9. Hofstede, Geert, 1994. "The business of international business is culture," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 1-14, March.
    10. Nicholas A. Athanassiou & Kendall Roth, 2006. "International experience heterogeneity effects on top management team advice networks: A hierarchical analysis," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 46(6), pages 749-770, December.
    11. Bossard, Annette B. & Peterson, Richard B., 2005. "The repatriate experience as seen by American expatriates," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 9-28, February.
    12. Lars Oxelheim & Trond Randøy, 2005. "The Anglo-American financial influence on CEO compensation in non-Anglo-American firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(4), pages 470-483, July.
    13. John H Dunning, 1989. "The Study of International Business: A Plea for a More Interdisciplinary Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 20(3), pages 411-436, September.
    14. Hsu, Chia-Wen & Lien, Yung-Chih & Chen, Homin, 2015. "R&D internationalization and innovation performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 187-195.
    15. Davoine, Eric & Ravasi, Claudio, 2013. "The relative stability of national career patterns in European top management careers in the age of globalisation: A comparative study in France/Germany/Great Britain and Switzerland," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 152-163.
    16. Oded Shenkar, 2001. "Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(3), pages 519-535, September.
    17. Eric Davoine & Claudio Ravasi & Xavier Salamin & Christel Cudré-Mauroux, 2013. "A “dramaturgical” analysis of spouse role enactment in expatriation: An exploratory gender comparative study in the diplomatic and consular field," Journal of Global Mobility, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 92-112, June.
    18. Schazia Sara Delhvi & Stefan Süß, 2016. "Careers and career research in Germany: a literature review," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 66(1), pages 1-31, February.
    19. Stroh, Linda K. & Gregersen, Hal B. & Black, J. Stewart, 1998. "Closing the gap: Expectations versus reality among repatriates," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 111-124, July.
    20. Jacques Jaussaud & Johannes Schaaper & Bruno Amann & Nakamura Hiroyuki & Shuji Mizoguchi, 2013. "Human Resource Management in Asian Subsidiaries: Comparison of French and Japanese MNCs," Post-Print hal-02394898, HAL.
    21. Susanna Fellman, 2003. "The Role of Internal Labour Markets and Social Networks in the Recruitment of Top Managers in Finnish Manufacturing Firms, 1900-1975," Business History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 1-21.
    22. Harzing, Anne-Wil, 2001. "Of bears, bumble-bees, and spiders: the role of expatriates in controlling foreign subsidiaries," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 366-379, January.
    23. Collings, David G., 2014. "Integrating global mobility and global talent management: Exploring the challenges and strategic opportunities," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 253-261.
    24. Hutzschenreuter, Thomas & Horstkotte, Julian, 2013. "Performance effects of international expansion processes: The moderating role of top management team experiences," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 259-277.
    25. Rivas, Jose Luis, 2012. "Diversity & internationalization: The case of boards and TMT's," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-12.
    26. Dan V Caprar & Timothy M Devinney & Bradley L Kirkman & Paula Caligiuri, 2015. "Conceptualizing and measuring culture in international business and management: From challenges to potential solutions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 46(9), pages 1011-1027, December.
    27. Stahl, Günter K. & Miller, Edwin L. & Tung, Rosalie L., 2002. "Toward the boundaryless career: a closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 216-227, October.
    28. Wolfgang Keller, 2002. "Geographic Localization of International Technology Diffusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 120-142, March.
    29. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    30. Peterson, Richard B., 2003. "The use of expatriates and inpatriates in Central and Eastern Europe since the Wall came down," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 55-69, February.
    31. B. Sebastian Reiche, 2012. "Knowledge Benefits of Social Capital upon Repatriation: A Longitudinal Study of International Assignees," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(6), pages 1052-1077, September.
    32. Joseph L C Cheng & Witold J Henisz & Kendall Roth & Anand Swaminathan, 2009. "From the Editors: Advancing interdisciplinary research in the field of international business: Prospects, issues and challenges," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(7), pages 1070-1074, September.
    33. Ho‐Uk Lee & Jong‐Hun Park, 2008. "The Influence of Top Management Team International Exposure on International Alliance Formation," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(5), pages 961-981, July.
    34. Schmid, Stefan & Dauth, Tobias, 2014. "Does internationalization make a difference? Stock market reaction to announcements of international top executive appointments," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 63-77.
    35. Nicholas Athanassiou & Douglas Nigh, 2000. "Internationalization, Tacit Knowledge and the Top Management Teams of MNCs," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(3), pages 471-487, September.
    36. Laszlo Tihanyi & David A Griffith & Craig J Russell, 2005. "The effect of cultural distance on entry mode choice, international diversification, and MNE performance: a meta-analysis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(3), pages 270-283, May.
    37. Bradley L Kirkman & Kevin B Lowe & Cristina B Gibson, 2006. "A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(3), pages 285-320, May.
    38. Nielsen, Bo Bernhard & Nielsen, Sabina, 2011. "The role of top management team international orientation in international strategic decision-making: The choice of foreign entry mode," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 185-193, April.
    39. Tung, Rosalie L., 2016. "New perspectives on human resource management in a global context," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 142-152.
    40. Greve, Peder & Nielsen, Sabina & Ruigrok, Winfried, 2009. "Transcending borders with international top management teams: A study of European financial multinational corporations," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 213-224, June.
    41. Collings, David G. & Scullion, Hugh & Morley, Michael J., 2007. "Changing patterns of global staffing in the multinational enterprise: Challenges to the conventional expatriate assignment and emerging alternatives," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 198-213, June.
    42. Lauring, Jakob & Selmer, Jan, 2010. "The supportive expatriate spouse: An ethnographic study of spouse involvement in expatriate careers," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 59-69, February.
    43. Greve, Peder & Biemann, Torsten & Ruigrok, Winfried, 2015. "Foreign executive appointments: A multilevel examination," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 674-686.
    44. Shirley C. Sonesh & Angelo S. DeNisi, 2016. "The categorization of expatriates and the support offered by host country nationals," Journal of Global Mobility, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 18-43, March.
    45. Daniel C Feldman & David C Thomas, 1992. "Career Management Issues Facing Expatriates," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(2), pages 271-293, June.
    46. Chizema, Amon, 2010. "Early and late adoption of American-style executive pay in Germany: Governance and institutions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 9-18, January.
    47. Windolf, Paul, 2002. "Corporate Networks in Europe and the United States," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199256976.
    48. Farndale, Elaine & Scullion, Hugh & Sparrow, Paul, 2010. "The role of the corporate HR function in global talent management," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 161-168, April.
    49. van Veen, Kees & Marsman, Ilse, 2008. "How international are executive boards of European MNCs? Nationality diversity in 15 European countries," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 188-198, June.
    50. Vesa Suutari & Christelle Tornikoski & Liisa Mäkeläa, 2012. "Career Decision Making of Global Careerists," Grenoble Ecole de Management (Post-Print) hal-00761562, HAL.
    51. Tung, Rosalie L., 1998. "American expatriates abroad: From neophytes to cosmopolitans," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 125-144, July.
    52. Egon Franck & Christian Opitz, 2007. "The Singularity of the German Doctorate as a Signal for Managerial Talent: Causes, Consequences and Future Developments," management revue. Socio-economic Studies, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 18(2), pages 220-244.
    53. Michele Fratianni & Chang Hoon Oh, 2009. "Expanding RTAs, trade flows, and the multinational enterprise," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(7), pages 1206-1227, September.
    54. Shawn M Carraher & Sherry E Sullivan & Madeline M Crocitto, 2008. "Mentoring across global boundaries: an empirical examination of home- and host-country mentors on expatriate career outcomes," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(8), pages 1310-1326, December.
    55. Monika Hamori & Burak Koyuncu, 2011. "Career advancement in large organizations in Europe and the United States: do international assignments add value?," Post-Print hal-00658023, HAL.
    56. David W. Conrath, 1973. "Communications Environment and its Relationship to Organizational Structure," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 20(4-Part-II), pages 586-603, December.
    57. Ambos, Tina C. & Ambos, Björn, 2009. "The impact of distance on knowledge transfer effectiveness in multinational corporations," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-14, March.
    58. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    59. Richard F. J. Haans & Constant Pieters & Zi-Lin He, 2016. "Thinking about U: Theorizing and testing U- and inverted U-shaped relationships in strategy research," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(7), pages 1177-1195, July.
    60. Mark C Bolino, 2007. "Expatriate assignments and intra-organizational career success: implications for individuals and organizations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(5), pages 819-835, September.
    61. Caligiuri, Paula & Bonache, Jaime, 2016. "Evolving and enduring challenges in global mobility," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 127-141.
    62. Lilach Nachum & Srilata Zaheer & Shulamith Gross, 2008. "Does It Matter Where Countries Are? Proximity to Knowledge, Markets and Resources, and MNE Location Choices," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(7), pages 1252-1265, July.
    63. Anne-Wil Harzing & Markus Pudelko, 2016. "Do We Need to Distance Ourselves from the Distance Concept? Why Home and Host Country Context Might Matter More Than (Cultural) Distance," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 1-34, February.
    64. Pol Herrmann & Deepak K. Datta, 2006. "CEO Experiences: Effects on the Choice of FDI Entry Mode," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 755-778, June.
    65. Magnusson, Peter & Boggs, David J., 2006. "International experience and CEO selection: An empirical study," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 107-125, March.
    66. Drogendijk, Rian & Martín Martín, Oscar, 2015. "Relevant dimensions and contextual weights of distance in international business decisions: Evidence from Spanish and Chinese outward FDI," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 133-147.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Zhang, Yameng & Sharma, Piyush & Xu, Yekun & Zhan, Wu, 2021. "Challenges in internationalization of R&D teams: Impact of foreign technocrats in top management teams on firm innovations," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 728-741.
    2. Chipoong Kim & Chul Chung & Chris Brewster, 2019. "Beyond nationality: International experience as a key dimension for subsidiary staffing choices in MNEs," Journal of Global Mobility, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(3), pages 269-284, September.
    3. Michaela Wrede & Tobias Dauth, 2020. "A temporal perspective on the relationship between top management team internationalization and firms' innovativeness," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(4), pages 542-561, June.
    4. Haldun Şecaattin ÇETİNARSLAN & Esin CAN, 2019. "Çokuluslu İşletmelerin Yönetici Kaynakları Üzerine Kavramsal Bir Çalışma," Istanbul Management Journal, Istanbul University Business School, vol. 0(86), pages 75-95, June.
    5. Stefan Schmid & Simon Mitterreiter, 2020. "International Top Managers on Corporate Boards: Dissimilarity and Tenure," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 60(5), pages 787-825, October.
    6. Stefan Schmid & Sebastian Baldermann, 2021. "CEOs’ International Work Experience and Compensation," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 61(3), pages 313-364, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Stefan Schmid & Simon Mitterreiter, 2020. "International Top Managers on Corporate Boards: Dissimilarity and Tenure," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 60(5), pages 787-825, October.
    2. Georgakakis, Dimitrios & Dauth, Tobias & Ruigrok, Winfried, 2016. "Too much of a good thing: Does international experience variety accelerate or delay executives’ career advancement?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 425-437.
    3. Stefan Schmid & Sebastian Baldermann, 2021. "CEOs’ International Work Experience and Compensation," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 61(3), pages 313-364, June.
    4. Rosalie L Tung & Günter K Stahl, 2018. "The tortuous evolution of the role of culture in IB research: What we know, what we don’t know, and where we are headed," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 49(9), pages 1167-1189, December.
    5. Sarabi, Almasa & Froese, Fabian J. & Hamori, Monika, 2017. "Is inpatriate assignment experience a ticket to the top of a foreign subsidiary? The moderating effect of subsidiary context," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 680-690.
    6. Muellner, Jakob & Klopf, Patricia & Nell, Phillip C., 2017. "Trojan Horses or Local Allies: Host-country National Managers in Developing Market Subsidiaries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 306-325.
    7. Caligiuri, Paula & Bonache, Jaime, 2016. "Evolving and enduring challenges in global mobility," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 127-141.
    8. Schmid, Stefan & Altfeld, Frederic & Dauth, Tobias, 2018. "Americanization as a driver of CEO pay in Europe: The moderating role of CEO power," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 433-451.
    9. Tung, Rosalie L., 2016. "New perspectives on human resource management in a global context," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 142-152.
    10. Greve, Peder & Biemann, Torsten & Ruigrok, Winfried, 2015. "Foreign executive appointments: A multilevel examination," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 674-686.
    11. Dauth, Tobias & Pronobis, Paul & Schmid, Stefan, 2017. "Exploring the link between internationalization of top management and accounting quality: The CFO’s international experience matters," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 71-88.
    12. Rickley, Marketa & Karim, Samina, 2018. "Managing institutional distance: Examining how firm-specific advantages impact foreign subsidiary CEO staffing," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 740-751.
    13. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk & Tatiana Kostova & Kendall Roth, 2017. "An overview of Hofstede-inspired country-level culture research in international business since 2006," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 48(1), pages 30-47, January.
    14. Mukherjee Subhasree & Dhayanithy Deepak, 2017. "Effect of Inter-organizational Network on TMT – Entry Mode Choice relationship," Working papers 246, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode.
    15. Michaela Wrede & Tobias Dauth, 2020. "A temporal perspective on the relationship between top management team internationalization and firms' innovativeness," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(4), pages 542-561, June.
    16. Schmid, Stefan & Dauth, Tobias, 2014. "Does internationalization make a difference? Stock market reaction to announcements of international top executive appointments," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 63-77.
    17. Chipoong Kim & Chul Chung & Chris Brewster, 2019. "Beyond nationality: International experience as a key dimension for subsidiary staffing choices in MNEs," Journal of Global Mobility, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(3), pages 269-284, September.
    18. Daniel R Clark & Dan Li & Dean A Shepherd, 2018. "Country familiarity in the initial stage of foreign market selection," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 49(4), pages 442-472, May.
    19. Ana M. Romero-Martínez & Fernando E. García-Muiña & Agnieszka Chidlow & Jorma Larimo, 2019. "Formal and Informal Institutional Differences Between Home and Host Country and Location Choice: Evidence from the Spanish Hotel Industry," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 59(1), pages 41-65, February.
    20. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:5:p:991-1008. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.