IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finsta/v19y2015icp83-104.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance

Author

Listed:
  • Nys, Emmanuelle
  • Tarazi, Amine
  • Trinugroho, Irwan

Abstract

This paper investigates the impact of banks’ political connections on their ability to collect deposits under two different deposit insurance regimes (blanket guarantee and limited guarantee). We use a unique hand-collected dataset that identifies the political connections of Indonesian commercial banks, from Q1:2002 to Q2:2008. We find that, regardless of their type (state-owned or private entities), politically connected banks are able to attract deposits more easily than their non-connected counterparts. We also show that this effect is more pronounced after the implementation of formal deposit insurance with limited coverage. Our findings have various policy implications. Formal deposit insurance might have improved market discipline, as highlighted by earlier studies, but it has also exacerbated the issue of political connections in the banking sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Nys, Emmanuelle & Tarazi, Amine & Trinugroho, Irwan, 2015. "Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 83-104.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:19:y:2015:i:c:p:83-104
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfs.2015.01.004
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572308915000054
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jfs.2015.01.004?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Masahiro Hori & Yasuaki Ito & Keiko Murata, 2009. "Do Depositors Respond Rationally To Bank Risks? Evidence From Japanese Banks During Crises," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(5), pages 581-592, December.
    2. Dinc, I. Serdar, 2005. "Politicians and banks: Political influences on government-owned banks in emerging markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 453-479, August.
    3. Chaney, Paul K. & Faccio, Mara & Parsley, David, 2011. "The quality of accounting information in politically connected firms," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1-2), pages 58-76, February.
    4. Chutatong Charumilind & Raja Kali & Yupana Wiwattanakantang, 2006. "Connected Lending: Thailand before the Financial Crisis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 181-218, January.
    5. Matías Braun & Claudio Raddatz, 2010. "Banking on Politics: When Former High-ranking Politicians Become Bank Directors," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 24(2), pages 234-279, June.
    6. Claessens, Stijn & Feijen, Erik & Laeven, Luc, 2008. "Political connections and preferential access to finance: The role of campaign contributions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 554-580, June.
    7. Sapienza, Paola, 2004. "The effects of government ownership on bank lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 357-384, May.
    8. Hamada, Miki & Konishi, Masaru, 2010. "Related Lending and Bank Performance: Evidence from Indonesia," IDE Discussion Papers 229, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    9. Thomas Mondschean & Timothy Opiela, 1999. "Bank Time Deposit Rates and Market Discipline in Poland: The Impact of State Ownership and Deposit Insurance Reform," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 15(3), pages 179-196, May.
    10. Bliss, Mark A. & Gul, Ferdinand A., 2012. "Political connection and cost of debt: Some Malaysian evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1520-1527.
    11. Plümper, Thomas & Troeger, Vera E., 2007. "Efficient Estimation of Time-Invariant and Rarely Changing Variables in Finite Sample Panel Analyses with Unit Fixed Effects," Political Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 124-139, April.
    12. Disli, Mustafa & Schoors, Koen & Meir, Jos, 2013. "Political connections and depositor discipline," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 804-819.
    13. Fan, Joseph P.H. & Wong, T.J. & Zhang, Tianyu, 2007. "Politically connected CEOs, corporate governance, and Post-IPO performance of China's newly partially privatized firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 330-357, May.
    14. J. Soedradjad Djiwandono, 2004. "Liquidity support to banks during Indonesia's financial crisis," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(1), pages 59-75.
    15. Li, Hongbin & Meng, Lingsheng & Wang, Qian & Zhou, Li-An, 2008. "Political connections, financing and firm performance: Evidence from Chinese private firms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 283-299, October.
    16. Krueger, Anne O, 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(3), pages 291-303, June.
    17. Hamada, Miki, 2011. "Market discipline by depositors : impact of deposit insurance on the Indonesian banking sector," IDE Discussion Papers 292, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    18. Ross Mcleod, 2006. "Indonesia's new deposit guarantee law," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 59-78.
    19. Trinugroho, Irwan & Agusman, Agusman & Tarazi, Amine, 2014. "Why have bank interest margins been so high in Indonesia since the 1997/1998 financial crisis?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 139-158.
    20. Carretta, Alessandro & Farina, Vincenzo & Gon, Abhishek & Parisi, Antonio, 2011. "Politicians “on board”! Do political connections affect banking activities in Italy?," MPRA Paper 33549, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Molyneux, Philip & Thornton, John, 1992. "Determinants of European bank profitability: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 1173-1178, December.
    22. Mise, Emi & Kim, Tae-Hwan & Newbold, Paul, 2005. "On suboptimality of the Hodrick-Prescott filter at time series endpoints," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 53-67, March.
    23. Fraser, Donald R. & Zhang, Hao & Derashid, Chek, 2006. "Capital structure and political patronage: The case of Malaysia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1291-1308, April.
    24. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Sun, Xian, 2009. "Political connections and the process of going public: Evidence from China," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 696-719, June.
    25. Leuz, Christian & Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, 2006. "Political relationships, global financing, and corporate transparency: Evidence from Indonesia," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 411-439, August.
    26. Imai, Masami, 2006. "Market discipline and deposit insurance reform in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 3433-3452, December.
    27. George Fane & Ross H.McLeod, 2002. "Banking Collapse and Restructuring in Indonesia, 1997-2001," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 22(2), pages 277-295, Fall.
    28. Ikuko Fueda & Masaru Konishi, 2007. "Depositors’ Response to Deposit Insurance Reforms: Evidence from Japan, 1990–2005," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 101-122, June.
    29. Adhikari, Ajay & Derashid, Chek & Zhang, Hao, 2006. "Public policy, political connections, and effective tax rates: Longitudinal evidence from Malaysia," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 574-595.
    30. Johnson, Simon & Mitton, Todd, 2003. "Cronyism and capital controls: evidence from Malaysia," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 351-382, February.
    31. Allen N. Berger, 1991. "Market discipline in banking," Proceedings 328, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    32. Alexei Karas & William Pyle & Koen Schoors, 2010. "How do Russian depositors discipline their banks? Evidence of a backward bending deposit supply function," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 36-61, January.
    33. Mara Faccio, 2006. "Politically Connected Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 369-386, March.
    34. Mr. Harald Finger & Mr. Heiko Hesse, 2009. "Lebanon-Determinants of Commercial Bank Deposits in a Regional Financial Center," IMF Working Papers 2009/195, International Monetary Fund.
    35. Eitan Goldman & Jörg Rocholl & Jongil So, 2009. "Do Politically Connected Boards Affect Firm Value?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2331-2360, June.
    36. Hadad, Muliaman D. & Agusman, Agusman & Monroe, Gary S. & Gasbarro, Dominic & Zumwalt, James Kenton, 2011. "Market discipline, financial crisis and regulatory changes: Evidence from Indonesian banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1552-1562, June.
    37. Park, Sangkyun, 1995. "Market discipline by depositors: Evidence from reduced-form equations," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(35), pages 497-514.
    38. Opiela, Timothy P., 2004. "Was there an implicit full guarantee at financial institutions in Thailand? Evidence of risk pricing by depositors," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 519-541, September.
    39. Boubakri, Narjess & Guedhami, Omrane & Mishra, Dev & Saffar, Walid, 2012. "Political connections and the cost of equity capital," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 541-559.
    40. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1994. "Politicians and Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 995-1025.
    41. Önder, Zeynep & Özyildirim, Süheyla, 2008. "Market Reaction to Risky Banks: Did Generous Deposit Guarantee Change It?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1415-1435, August.
    42. MARA FACCIO & RONALD W. MASULIS & JOHN J. McCONNELL, 2006. "Political Connections and Corporate Bailouts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2597-2635, December.
    43. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2005. "Do Lenders Favor Politically Connected Firms? Rent Provision in an Emerging Financial Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(4), pages 1371-1411.
    44. Raymond Fisman, 2001. "Estimating the Value of Political Connections," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 1095-1102, September.
    45. Keiko Murata & Masahiro Hori, 2006. "Do Small Depositors Exit From Bad Banks? Evidence From Small Financial Institutions In Japan," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 57(2), pages 260-278, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Rihem Braham & Lotfi Belkacem & Christian de Peretti, 2018. "The role of political patronage on risk-taking behavior of banks in Middle East and North Africa region," Working Papers hal-01762523, HAL.
    2. Trinugroho, Irwan & Pamungkas, Putra & Ariefianto, Mochammad Doddy & Tarazi, Amine, 2020. "Deposit structure, market discipline, and ownership type: Evidence from Indonesia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 44(2).
    3. Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kozłowski, Łukasz & Podgórski, Błażej & Winkler-Drews, Tadeusz, 2020. "Do political connections shield from negative shocks? Evidence from rating changes in advanced emerging economies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    4. Chen, Yan-Shing & Chen, Yehning & Lin, Chih-Yung & Sharma, Zenu, 2016. "Is there a bright side to government banks? Evidence from the global financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 128-143.
    5. Atmaca, Sumeyra & Kirschenmann, Karolin & Ongena, Steven & Schoors, Koen, 2020. "Deposit Insurance, Bank Ownership and Depositor Behavior," CEPR Discussion Papers 15547, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Hung, Chi-Hsiou D. & Jiang, Yuxiang & Liu, Frank Hong & Tu, Hong & Wang, Senyu, 2017. "Bank political connections and performance in China," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 57-69.
    7. Pejman Ebrahimi & Maria Fekete-Farkas & Parisa Bouzari & Róbert Magda, 2021. "Financial Performance of Iranian Banks from 2013 to 2019: A Panel Data Approach," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 14(6), pages 1-15, June.
    8. Papadimitri, Panagiota & Pasiouras, Fotios & Pescetto, Gioia & Wohlschlegel, Ansgar, 2021. "Does political influence distort banking regulation? Evidence from the US," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    9. Alamsyah, Halim & Ariefianto, Moch. Doddy & Saheruddin, Herman & Wardono, Seto & Trinugroho, Irwan, 2020. "Depositors’ trust: Some empirical evidence from Indonesia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    10. Braham, Rihem & de Peretti, Christian & Belkacem, Lotfi, 2020. "The role of political patronage in the risk-taking behaviour of banks in the Middle East and North Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    11. Arifin, Taufiq & Hasan, Iftekhar & Kabir, Rezaul, 2020. "Transactional and relational approaches to political connections and the cost of debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    12. Rihem Braham & Christian Peretti & Lotfi Belkacem, 2019. "Do political connections affect bank leverage? Evidence from some Middle Eastern and North African countries," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 23(4), pages 989-1006, December.
    13. Bitar, Mohammad & Hassan, M. Kabir & Walker, Thomas, 2017. "Political systems and the financial soundness of Islamic banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 18-44.
    14. Ho, Po-Hsin & Chen, Hung-Kun & Lin, Chih-Yung & Chi, Che-Wei, 2016. "Does monitoring by the media improve the performance of government banks?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 76-87.
    15. Anastasiou, Dimitrios & Drakos, Konstantinos, 2021. "European depositors’ behavior and crisis sentiment," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 117-136.
    16. Meslier, Céline & Risfandy, Tastaftiyan & Tarazi, Amine, 2017. "Dual market competition and deposit rate setting in Islamic and conventional banks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 318-333.
    17. Delis, Manthos D. & Staikouras, Panagiotis K. & Tsoumas, Chris, 2019. "Supervisory enforcement actions and bank deposits," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 110-123.
    18. Ambrocio, Gene & Gu, Xian & Hasan, Iftekhar & Politsidis, Panagiotis, 2020. "The Diplomacy Discount in Global Syndicated Loans," MPRA Paper 103249, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Anastasiou, Dimitrios & Katsafados, Apostolos G., 2020. "Bank Deposits Flows and Textual Sentiment: When an ECB President's speech is not just a speech," MPRA Paper 99729, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Bui, Christina & Scheule, Harald & Wu, Eliza, 2020. "A cautionary tale of two extremes: The provision of government liquidity support in the banking sector," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    21. Thierno Barry & Alassane Diabaté & Amine Tarazi, 2020. "Unexpected deposit flows, off-balance sheet funding liquidity risk and bank loan production," Working Papers hal-02516724, HAL.
    22. Tastaftiyan Risfandy & Wahyu Trinarningsih & Harmadi Harmadi & Irwan Trinugroho, 2019. "Islamic Banks’ Market Power, State-Owned Banks, And Ramadan: Evidence From Indonesia," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(02), pages 423-440, March.
    23. Bowo Setiyono & Amine Tarazi, 2014. "Does the presence of institutional investors in family banks affect profitability and risk? Evidence from an emerging market," Working Papers hal-01077118, HAL.
    24. Boateng, Agyenim & Liu, Yang & Brahma, Sanjukta, 2019. "Politically connected boards, ownership structure and credit risk: Evidence from Chinese commercial banks," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 162-173.
    25. Omneya Abdelsalam & Sabur Mollah & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2018. "Political connection and bank in(efficiency)," Working Papers 2018-11, Swansea University, School of Management.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Emmanuelle Nys & Amine Tarazi & Irwan Trinugroho, 2013. "Political Connections, Bank Deposits, and Formal Deposit Insurance: Evidence from an Emerging Economy," Working Papers hal-00916513, HAL.
    2. Li, Guoping & Zhou, Hong, 2015. "Political connections and access to IPO markets in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 76-93.
    3. Disli, Mustafa & Schoors, Koen & Meir, Jos, 2013. "Political connections and depositor discipline," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 804-819.
    4. Rihem Braham & Christian Peretti & Lotfi Belkacem, 2019. "Do political connections affect bank leverage? Evidence from some Middle Eastern and North African countries," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 23(4), pages 989-1006, December.
    5. Rajwani, Tazeeb & Liedong, Tahiru Azaaviele, 2015. "Political activity and firm performance within nonmarket research: A review and international comparative assessment," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 273-283.
    6. Banerji, Sanjay & Duygun, Meryem & Shaban, Mohamed, 2018. "Political connections, bailout in financial markets and firm value," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 388-401.
    7. Wong, Wai-Yan & Hooy, Chee-Wooi, 2018. "Do types of political connection affect firm performance differently?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 297-317.
    8. Miroslav Palanský, 2021. "The value of political connections in the post-transition period: evidence from Czechia," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 188(1), pages 121-154, July.
    9. Su, Zhong-qin & Fung, Hung-Gay & Huang, Deng-shi & Shen, Chung-Hua, 2014. "Cash dividends, expropriation, and political connections: Evidence from China," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 260-272.
    10. Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kozłowski, Łukasz & Podgórski, Błażej & Winkler-Drews, Tadeusz, 2020. "Do political connections shield from negative shocks? Evidence from rating changes in advanced emerging economies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    11. Feng, Xunan & Johansson, Anders C. & Zhang, Tianyu, 2015. "Mixing business with politics: Political participation by entrepreneurs in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 220-235.
    12. Thanh Ngo & Jurica Susnjara, 2020. "Government contracts and US bond yield spreads: A study on costs and benefits of materialized political connections," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(7-8), pages 1059-1085, July.
    13. Chwee Ming Tee & Angelina Seow Voon Yee & Aik Lee Chong, 2018. "Institutional Investors’ Monitoring and Stock Price Crash Risk: Evidence from Politically Connected Firms," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 21(04), pages 1-35, December.
    14. Ding, Shujun & Jia, Chunxin & Wu, Zhenyu & Zhang, Xiaoqing, 2014. "Executive political connections and firm performance: Comparative evidence from privately-controlled and state-owned enterprises," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 153-167.
    15. Boateng, Agyenim & Liu, Yang & Brahma, Sanjukta, 2019. "Politically connected boards, ownership structure and credit risk: Evidence from Chinese commercial banks," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 162-173.
    16. Cull, Robert & Li, Wei & Sun, Bo & Xu, Lixin Colin, 2015. "Government connections and financial constraints: Evidence from a large representative sample of Chinese firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 271-294.
    17. Chkir, Imed & Gallali, Mohamed Imen & Toukabri, Manara, 2020. "Political connections and corporate debt: Evidence from two U.S. election campaigns," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 229-239.
    18. Sharma, Piyush & Cheng, Louis T.W. & Leung, T.Y., 2020. "Impact of political connections on Chinese export firms' performance – Lessons for other emerging markets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 24-34.
    19. Tang, Xuesong & Lin, Yan & Peng, Qing & Du, Jun & Chan, Kam C., 2016. "Politically connected directors and firm value: Evidence from forced resignations in China," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 148-167.
    20. Koetter, Michael & Popov, Alexander, 2018. "Politics, banks, and sub-sovereign debt: unholy trinity or divine coincidence?," Working Paper Series 2146, European Central Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banking; Political connections; Bank deposits; Funds; Deposit insurance system; Indonesia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:19:y:2015:i:c:p:83-104. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jfstabil .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jfstabil .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.