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Banking Collapse and Restructuring in Indonesia, 1997-2001

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  • Fane, George

    ()

  • McLeod, Ross

    ()

Abstract

Most of Indonesia's banking system collapsed during the 1997-98 financial and economic crisis. We estimate that the net cost to taxpayers of the government's blanket guarantee of banks' liabilities, issued in February 1998, is about 40 per cent of annual GDP. Large banks fared worse in the crisis than small ones and state banks fared worse than private ones. Despite this, and despite the fact that bank capital turned out to have been inadequate, the government reduced the capital requirements for all banks, transferred the assets of closed banks, together with the lowest quality loans of those that were recapitalized, to a state-owned holding company, and thus excluded the private sector from participating in the process of liquidating these assets. The government offered to recapitalize several banks jointly with the private sector, but participation was restricted to the former owners, and even they could only participate on very unfavorable terms. As a result, too many banks were closed, too many nationalized and several were unnecessarily merged. We propose a more market oriented approach that would have strengthened banks by raising capital requirements and also minimized fiscal costs by auctioning those that failed to meet these requirements. In the case of insolvent banks, bidders should have been invited to submit tenders for taking over both their assets and liabilities. In all cases, bidders should have been able to choose between liquidating banks and keeping them operational, after injecting enough cash to meet the new capital adequacy requirements.

Suggested Citation

  • Fane, George & McLeod, Ross, 2001. "Banking Collapse and Restructuring in Indonesia, 1997-2001," Departmental Working Papers 2001-10, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:papers:2001-10
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/publications/publish/papers/wp2001/2001-10%20Fane-McLeod%20banking.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mari Pangestu & Miranda Swaray Goeltom, 2001. "Survey Of Recent Developments," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 141-171.
    2. Ross H. McLeod, 1996. "Control And Competition: Banking Deregulation And Re-Regulation In Indonesia," Departmental Working Papers 1996-07, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    3. Raden Pardede, 1999. "Survey of Recent Developments," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 3-40.
    4. Ross McLeod, 2000. "Survey of Recent Developments," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 5-41.
    5. Kevin Dowd, 1999. "Does Asymmetric Information Justify Bank Capital Adequacy Regulation," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 19(1), pages 39-47, Spring/Su.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ross H Mcledo, 2008. "The Soeharto Era: From Beginning to End," Departmental Working Papers 2008-03, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    2. Emmanuelle Nys & Amine Tarazi & Irwan Trinugroho, 2013. "Political Connections, Bank Deposits, and Formal Deposit Insurance: Evidence from an Emerging Economy," Working Papers hal-00916513, HAL.
    3. Nys, Emmanuelle & Tarazi, Amine & Trinugroho, Irwan, 2015. "Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 83-104.
    4. Ross H. McLeod, 2014. "The ill-fated currency board proposal for Indonesia," Departmental Working Papers 2014-02, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    5. Agusman, Agusman & Cullen, Grant S. & Gasbarro, Dominic & Monroe, Gary S. & Zumwalt, J. Kenton, 2014. "Government intervention, bank ownership and risk-taking during the Indonesian financial crisis," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 114-131.
    6. Ross H. McLeod, 2002. "Second and Third Thoughts on Privatisation in Indonesia," Agenda - A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, vol. 9(2), pages 151-164.
    7. Miranda S Goeltom, 2008. "The transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in Indonesia," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Transmission mechanisms for monetary policy in emerging market economies, volume 35, pages 309-332 Bank for International Settlements.
    8. Ardliansyah, Rifqi, 2012. "Stock Market Integration and International Portfolio Diversification between U.S. and ASEAN Equity Markets," MPRA Paper 41958, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    banking crisis; bank restructuring; capital adequacy; Indonesia; moral hazard; prudential regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General - - - General
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

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