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Economic freedom and cross-border venture capital performance

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  • Wang, Lanfang
  • Wang, Susheng

Abstract

We investigate the determinants of cross-border venture capital (VC) performance using a large sample of 10,205 cross-border VC investments by 1906 foreign VC firms (VCs) in 6535 domestic portfolio companies. We focus on the impact of a domestic country's economic freedom on the performance of both VC investments and portfolio companies using a probit model and the Cox hazard model. After controlling for other related factors of domestic countries, portfolio companies, VCs and the global VC market, as well as year and industry fixed effects, we find that a domestic country's economic freedom is crucial to cross-border VC performance. In particular, in a more economically free country, as measured by the raw values of, quartiles of or the ranking in the index of economic freedom (IEF), a foreign VC-backed portfolio company is more likely to pull off a successful exit through an IPO (initial public offering) or an M&A (merger and acquisition), and a foreign VC firm is likely to spend a shorter investment duration in the portfolio company. We also identify interesting evidence on the impact of many other level factors of domestic countries, portfolio companies, VCs and the global VC market on cross-border VC performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2012. "Economic freedom and cross-border venture capital performance," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 26-50.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:19:y:2012:i:1:p:26-50
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jempfin.2011.10.002
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    Cited by:

    1. Cole, Rebel & Cumming, Douglas & Li, Dan, 2016. "Do banks or VCs spur small firm growth?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 60-72.
    2. Ruijun Zhang & Xiaotong Yang & Nian Li & Muhammad Asif Khan, 2021. "Herd Behavior in Venture Capital Market: Evidence from China," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 9(13), pages 1-18, June.
    3. Dominic, James & Gopalaswamy, Arun Kumar, 2019. "Is the venture capital market liquid? Evidence from India," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 146-157.
    4. Chen, Mei-Ping & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsu, Yi-Chung, 2017. "Investor sentiment and country exchange traded funds: Does economic freedom matter?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 285-299.
    5. Jihye Jeong & Juhee Kim & Hanei Son & Dae-il Nam, 2020. "The Role of Venture Capital Investment in Startups’ Sustainable Growth and Performance: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and Venture Capitalists’ Reputation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(8), pages 1-13, April.
    6. Lin Tian & Liang Han & Biao Mi, 2020. "Bank competition, information specialization and innovation," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 1011-1035, April.
    7. Axel Buchner & Susanne Espenlaub & Arif Khurshed & Abdulkadir Mohamed, 2018. "Cross-border venture capital investments: The impact of foreignness on returns," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 49(5), pages 575-604, July.
    8. Cumming, Douglas, 2014. "Public economics gone wild: Lessons from venture capital," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 251-260.
    9. Cumming, Douglas & Li, Dan, 2013. "Public policy, entrepreneurship, and venture capital in the United States," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 345-367.
    10. Jacob, Martin & Johan, Sofia & Schweizer, Denis & Zhan, Feng, 2016. "Corporate finance and the governance implications of removing government support programs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 35-47.
    11. Humphery-Jenner, Mark & Suchard, Jo-Ann, 2013. "Foreign VCs and venture success: Evidence from China," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 16-35.
    12. Cumming, Douglas J. & Grilli, Luca & Murtinu, Samuele, 2017. "Governmental and independent venture capital investments in Europe: A firm-level performance analysis," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 439-459.
    13. Chan, Konan & Lin, Yueh-hsiang & Wang, Yanzhi, 2015. "The information content of R&D reductions," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 131-155.
    14. Espenlaub, Susanne & Khurshed, Arif & Mohamed, Abdulkadir, 2015. "Venture capital exits in domestic and cross-border investments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 215-232.
    15. Bing Liu & Hui Jiang, 2019. "Are Distances Barriers to Sustainability for Venture Capital Syndication?," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(15), pages 1-18, July.
    16. Ahmed, Walid M.A., 2020. "Corruption and equity market performance: International comparative evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    17. Nigam, Nirjhar & Benetti, Cristiane & Johan, Sofia A., 2020. "Digital start-up access to venture capital financing: What signals quality?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(C).
    18. Cumming, Douglas & Zhang, Yelin, 2016. "Alternative investments in emerging markets: A review and new trends," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 1-23.
    19. Liu, Yu & Maula, Markku, 2021. "Contextual status effects: The performance effects of host-country network status and regulatory institutions in cross-border venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(5).
    20. Chen Zhang & Xinghua Dang & Tao Peng & Chaokai Xue, 2019. "Dynamic Evolution of Venture Capital Network in Clean Energy Industries Based on STERGM," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(22), pages 1-25, November.
    21. Pandey, Vivek & Steigner, Tanja & Sutton, Ninon K., 2023. "The value of economic freedom in cross-border mergers," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 540-563.
    22. Douglas Cumming & Simona Zambelli, 2017. "Due Diligence and Investee Performance," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 23(2), pages 211-253, March.
    23. Yibiao Chen & Steven S. Wang & Wilson H. S. Tong & Hui Zhu, 2017. "Economic freedom and IPO underpricing," Frontiers of Business Research in China, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 1-22, December.

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    Keywords

    Cross-border VC; Economic freedom; Legality; Entrepreneurial activity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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