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The Internationalization of Venture Capital and Private Equity

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  • Joshua Aizenman
  • Jake Kendall

Abstract

This paper investigates the internationalization of venture capital (VC) and private equity (PE) investments. We derive flows between countries of VC and PE investments worldwide, relying on comprehensive firm-level data sources, covering three decades and about 100 countries. A gravity analysis indicates that distance, common language, and colonial ties are significant factors in directing these flows. Additionally, the presence of high-end human capital, a better business environment, high levels of military expenditure, and deeper financial markets are important local factors that attract international venture capital. There is also evidence of path dependency and persistence in VC and PE flows, indicating network effects and fixed costs of entry may be at work. Further analysis suggests the internalization of VC and PE is an ongoing story. Prior to the 1990s, VC was primarily a US-only phenomenon. The globalization of IT activities induced the US venture capital industry to mature, and to start exporting its unique skills as VC managers. The US is now a dominant net exporter of deals, though most crossborder deals are still either to or from the US. China has emerged as the dominant net importer, followed by Sweden, Canada, the UK, France and India. For deals outside the US, cross-border participation has been the norm, while US-located deals have been almost exclusively domestic, involving a higher percent of international participation only after 2001. In the past few years, domestic VC capacity has begun to emerge in many countries where it did not exist previously.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua Aizenman & Jake Kendall, 2008. "The Internationalization of Venture Capital and Private Equity," NBER Working Papers 14344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14344
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ioannis Makedos, 2014. "Venture Capital Organization As A “Guarantee” For The Collaboration Between Smes And Universities Despite Economic Crisis," Romanian Economic Business Review, Romanian-American University, vol. 9(3), pages 10-26, September.
    2. Kraeussl, R. & Krause, S., 2011. "Has Europe Been Catching Up? An Industry Level Analysis of Venture Capital Success over 1985 - 2009," Working papers 327, Banque de France.
    3. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2011. "Venture capital and internationalization," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 423-439, August.
    4. Josh Lerner & Joacim Tåg, 2013. "Institutions and venture capital," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 153-182, February.
    5. Rin, Marco Da & Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2013. "A Survey of Venture Capital Research," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    6. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2012. "What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1777-1799.
    7. repec:spr:jbecon:v:88:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11573-017-0886-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Daniel S.Hain & Roman Jurowetzki, 2015. "Silicon Savanna? Local Competence Building and International Venture Capital in Low Income Countries. The Emergence of Foreign High-Tech Investments in Kenya," Globelics Working Paper Series 2015-09, Globelics - Global Network for Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems, Aalborg University, Department of Business and Management.
    9. Holloway, Isaac & Lee, Hoan Soo & Shen, Tao, 2016. "Private equity firm heterogeneity and cross-border acquisitions," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 118-141.
    10. Tykvová, Tereza & Schertler, Andrea, 2011. "Cross-border venture capital flows and local ties: Evidence from developed countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 36-48, February.
    11. repec:luc:wpaper:13-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2011. "Cross-border venture capital performance: Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 71-97, January.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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