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The determinants of venture capital: a panel data analysis of 16 OECD countries

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  • Astrid Romain
  • Bruno Van Pottelsberghe

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of venture capital (VC). We develop a theoretical model where three main types of factors affect the demand and supply of VC. These factors are related to macroeconomic conditions, research efforts and technological opportunity, and the entrepreneurial environment. The model is evaluated econometrically with a panel dataset of 16 major OECD countries over the period 1990-1998. The estimates confirm that VC intensity is highly pro-cyclical - it reacts positively and significantly to GDP growth. Short-term (one-year) interest rates have a positive impact on VC intensity, which means that they affect more the demand side of VC (entrepreneurs) than the supply side. Indicators of technological opportunity, such as the growth rate of R&D investment, the stock of knowledge and the number of triadic patents affect positively and significantly the relative level of VC. The factors associated with the entrepreneurial environment also explain a substantial part of cross-country variations in VC intensity. An increase in corporate income tax rate has a negative effect on VC intensity. Labour market rigidities reduce the impact of the GDP growth rate and of the stock of knowledge, whereas a minimum level of entrepreneurship is required in order to have a positive effect of the available stock of knowledge on VC intensity. One important policy implication emerges from these results. It is not by providing money for VC that public decision makers will stimulate VC, but by providing knowledge and improving the entrepreneurial environment.
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Suggested Citation

  • Astrid Romain & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2004. "The determinants of venture capital: a panel data analysis of 16 OECD countries," Working Papers CEB 04-015.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:04-015
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Romain, Astrid & Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van, 2003. "The Economic Impact of Venture Capital," IIR Working Paper 03-20, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    2. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    3. Manigart, Sophie & De Waele, Koen & Wright, Mike & Robbie, Ken & Desbrieres, Philippe & Sapienza, Harry J. & Beekman, Amy, 2002. "Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 291-312, July.
    4. James M. Poterba, 1989. "Venture Capital and Capital Gains Taxation," NBER Chapters,in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 3, pages 47-68 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Dominique Guellec & Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2003. "R&D and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries," OECD Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2001(2), pages 103-126.
    6. Jeng, Leslie A. & Wells, Philippe C., 2000. "The determinants of venture capital funding: evidence across countries," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 241-289, September.
    7. José Martí Pellón & Marina Balboa, 2001. "Determinants Of Private Equity Fundraising In Western Europe," Working Papers. Serie AD 2001-15, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    8. Engel, Dirk, 2002. "The Impact of Venture Capital on Firm Growth: An Empirical Investigation," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-02, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    9. van Pottelsberghe Bruno & Guellec Dominique, "undated". "From R & D to Productivity Growth: the Sources of Knowledge - Spillovers and their Interaction," EcoMod2002 330800067, EcoMod.
    10. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
    11. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elisabete Félix & Cesaltina Pires & Mohamed Gulamhussen, 2013. "The Determinants of Venture Capital in Europe — Evidence Across Countries," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 259-279, December.
    2. Aizenman, Joshua & Kendall, Jake, 2008. "The Internationalization of Venture Capital and Private Equity," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3vh3n83p, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    3. Kerstin Bernoth & Roberta Colavecchio & Magdolna Sass, 2010. "Drivers of Private Equity Investment in CEE and Western European Countries," Working Paper / FINESS 3.5, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Kerstin Bernoth & Roberta Colavecchio, 2014. "The macroeconomic determinants of private equity investment: a European comparison," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(11), pages 1170-1183, April.
    5. Romain, Astrid & Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van, 2003. "The Economic Impact of Venture Capital," IIR Working Paper 03-20, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    6. repec:diw:diwfin:diwfin03050 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Groh, Alexander P. & Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Lieser, Karsten, 2008. "The European venture capital and private equity country attractiveness index(es)," IESE Research Papers D/773, IESE Business School.
    8. Roland Füss & Denis Schweizer, 2012. "Short and long-term interactions between venture capital returns and the macroeconomy: evidence for the United States," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 391-410, April.
    9. Adongo, Jonathan O., 2017. "Legal jurisdiction, director liability law, and venture capitalists’ equity stakes in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 78-93.
    10. Groh, Alexander Peter & Wallmeroth, Johannes, 2016. "Determinants of venture capital investments in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 104-132.
    11. Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Engel, Nico & Reiner, Uwe, 2013. "The performance of venture capital investments: Do investors overreact?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 20-35.
    12. Groh, Alexander Peter & von Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Lieser, Karsten, 2010. "The European Venture Capital and Private Equity country attractiveness indices," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 205-224, April.
    13. Olof Ejermo & Jing Xiao, 2014. "Entrepreneurship and survival over the business cycle: how do new technology-based firms differ?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 411-426, August.
    14. Lazarevski, Dimche & Mrsik, Jadranka & Smokvarski, Edi, 2012. "Evolution of the venture capital financing for growing small and medium enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe countries: the case of Macedonia," MPRA Paper 41997, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Mihaela Diaconu, 2013. "The Financing Of R&D: Challenges For Romanian Firms," Studies and Scientific Researches. Economics Edition, "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacau, Faculty of Economic Sciences, issue 18.
    16. Groh, Alexander P. & Liechtenstein, Heinrich & Canela, Miguel A., 2008. "Limited partners' perceptions of the Central Eastern European venture capital and private equity market," IESE Research Papers D/727, IESE Business School.
    17. Groh, Alexander Peter & von Liechtenstein, Heinrich, 2009. "How attractive is central Eastern Europe for risk capital investors?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 625-647, June.
    18. Groh, Alexander P. & Liectenstein, Heinrich, 2009. "The first step of the capital flow from institutions to entrepreneurs: The criteria for sorting venture capital funds," IESE Research Papers D/795, IESE Business School.
    19. Daniel Hain & Sofia Johan & Daojuan Wang, 2016. "Determinants of Cross-Border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies: The Effects of Relational and Institutional Trust," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 138(4), pages 743-764, November.
    20. Groh, Alexander P., 2009. "Private equity in emerging markets," IESE Research Papers D/779, IESE Business School.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Venture capital; Technological opportunity; Entrepreneuship; Labour market rigidities.;

    JEL classification:

    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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