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Agricultural productivity, shadow wages and off-farm labor decisions in Nicaragua

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  • Almeida, Alexandre N.
  • Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to analyze the decision to work off-farm by male and female farmers in Nicaragua using a three-year unbalanced panel dataset. Shadow income and shadow wages are also estimated. Moreover, to mitigate biases from unobserved individual and farm time-invariant characteristics as well as from sample selection, we apply a semiparametric approach for panel data. Our main findings suggest that shadow wages play a major role in off-farm labor decisions for both males and females. This implies that less labor is allocated to off-farm activities as the opportunity cost for agricultural work goes up. In addition, as the on-farm marginal productivity of households (i.e., shadow income) rises, both males and females reduce the hours they allocate to off-farm activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Almeida, Alexandre N. & Bravo-Ureta, Boris E., 2019. "Agricultural productivity, shadow wages and off-farm labor decisions in Nicaragua," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 99-110.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:43:y:2019:i:1:p:99-110
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2018.09.002
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Shadow wages; Farm productivity; Semiparametric models; Labor supply; Nicaragua;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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