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Parametric and Semiparametric Modeling of the Off-Farm Labor Supply of Agrarian Households in Transition Bulgaria

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  • Barry K. Goodwin
  • Matthew T. Holt

Abstract

The reaction of labor marketsto economic reforms is an important indicator of the progress of transition. Because of diminished government support and the breakup of state and collective enterprises, labor market adjustments in the transition economies have been particularly severe in the agricultural sector. Thisarticle evaluatesthe off-farm labor market for a sample of agrarian households in transition Bulgaria. We give particular attention to the distributional assumptions that underlie standard approaches to the evaluation of labor supply. A variety of specification tests are considered and support for standard maximum likelihood estimates which rely on normality as a maintained hypothesis is mixed. Alternative semiparametric (distribution-free) estimators are also considered. The empirical results indicate that, five years after the initiation of the transition, off-farm labor supply patterns for Bulgarian agricultural households are similar to what is commonly observed in developed market economies. Labor supply is positively affected by factors such as education and work experience which are hypothesized to increase off-farm wages. Social benefit programs providing monetary or in-kind support payments are shown to significantly decrease off-farm work. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Barry K. Goodwin & Matthew T. Holt, 2002. "Parametric and Semiparametric Modeling of the Off-Farm Labor Supply of Agrarian Households in Transition Bulgaria," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(1), pages 184-209.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:84:y:2002:i:1:p:184-209
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/1467-8276.00252
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    1. Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Dimova, Ralitza & Nugent, Jeffrey B., 2011. "Off-farm labor supply and labor markets in rapidly changing circumstances: Bulgaria during transition," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 378-389, September.
    2. Vergara, Oscar & Coble, Keith H. & Patrick, George F. & Knight, Thomas O. & Baquet, Alan E., 2004. "Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off-Farm Labor by Limited-Resource Farmers," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 36(02), August.
    3. Jan Fałkowski & Maciej Jakubowski & Paweł Strawiński, 2014. "Returns from income strategies in rural Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 22(1), pages 139-178, January.
    4. Tocco, Barbara & Davidova, Sophia & Bailey, Alastair, 2014. "Labour adjustments in agriculture: evidence from Romania," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, vol. 116(2), August.
    5. Olper, Alessandro & Raimondi, Valentina & Cavicchioli, Daniele & Vigani, Mauro, 2012. "Does the Common Agricultural Policy Reduce Farm Labour Migration? Panel data analysis across EU regions," Working Papers 128790, Factor Markets, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    6. Tocco, Barbara & Davidova, Sophia & Bailey, Alastair Creation-Date: 2012-02, "undated". "Key Issues in Agricultural Labour Markets: A Review of Major Studies and Project Reports on Agriculture and Rural Labour Markets," Factor Markets Working Papers 126, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    7. Tocco, Barbara & Davidova, Sophia & Bailey, Alastair Creation-Date: 2012-02, "undated". "Supply and Demand Side Limitations Affecting the Structure of Agriculture and the Rural Economy," Factor Markets Working Papers 124, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    8. Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Ralitza Dimova & Jeffrey B. Nugent, 2006. "Pulls, Pushes and Entitlement Failures in Labor Markets: Does the State of Development Matter?," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 06-07, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
    9. Pandit, Mahesh & Paudel, Krishna P. & Mishra, Ashok K., 2013. "Do Agricultural Subsidies Affect the Labor Allocation Decision? Comparing Parametric and Semiparametric Methods," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 38(1), April.
    10. Ooms, Daan & Hall, A.R. Alastair, 2005. "Panel Data Estimation of Labour Supply Equations for Dutch Dairy Farmers," 89th Seminar, February 2-5, 2005, Parma, Italy 234636, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Mishra, Ashok K. & Nehring, Richard F. & Hendricks, Chad & Southern, Malaya & Gregory, Alexandra, 2007. "Off-Farm Income, Technology Adoption, And Farm Economic Performance," Economic Research Report 7234, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    12. Ahmed, Mansur & Goodwin, Barry, "undated". "Agricultural Mechanization and Non-Farm Labor Supply of Farm Households: Evidence from Bangladesh," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236131, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    13. Olper, Alessandro & Raimondi, Valentina & Cavicchioli, Daniele & Vigani, Mauro, "undated". "Reallocation of Agricultural Labor and Farm Subsidies: Evidence From the EU Regions," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126645, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Boisvert, Richard N. & Chang, Hung-Hao, 2006. "Does Participation in the Conservation Reserve Program and Off-Farm Work Affect the Level and Distribution of Farm Household Incomes?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21277, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    15. Alex Almeida & Boris Bravo-Ureta, 2011. "Agricultural Productivity And Off-Farm Labor Decisions By Heads And Spouses In Nicaragua: A Semiparametric Analysis Using Panel Data," ERSA conference papers ersa11p508, European Regional Science Association.
    16. Gedikoglu, Haluk, 1. "Socio-Economic Factors And Adoption O Fenergy Crops," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 3(1).
    17. Boisvert, Richard N., 2002. "Analysis of a Re-Focused Agricultural Policy within a Farm-Household Framework Some Data Requirements," Workshop on the Farm Household-Firm Unit: Its Importance in Agriculture and Implications for Statistics, April 12-13, 2002, Wye Campus,Imperial College 15727, International Agricultural Policy Reform and Adjustment Project (IAPRAP).
    18. Ooms, Daan L. & Hall, Alastair R., 2005. "EU policy reform simulation based on panel data estimation of on- and off-farm labour supply equations for Dutch dairy farmers," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19434, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    19. Chang, Hung-Hao & Boisvert, Richard N., 2009. "Does Participation in the Conservation Reserve Program and/or Off-Farm Work Affect the Level and Distribution of Farm Household Income?," Working Papers 57035, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    20. Seidu, Ayuba & Onel, Gulcan, 2015. "International Migration, Remittance Income, and Income Diversification Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Transitional Albania," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205517, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Western Agricultural Economics Association.
    21. Ooms, Daan L. & Hall, Alastair R., 2005. "On- and Off-Farm Labour Supply of Dutch Dairy Farmers: Estimation and Policy Simulations," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24506, European Association of Agricultural Economists.

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