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Gender, poverty, and nonfarm employment in Ghana and Uganda

  • Newman, Constance
  • Canagarajah, Sudharshan

The authors provide evidence that women's non-farm activities help reduce poverty in two economically and culturally different countries, Ghana and Uganda. In both countries rural poverty rates were lowest - and fell most rapidly - for female heads of household engaged in non-farm activities. Participation in non-farm activities increased more rapidly for women, especially married women and female heads of household, than for men. Women were more likely than men to combine agriculture and non-farm activities. In Ghana it was non-farm activities (for which income data are available ) that provided the highest average incomes and the highest shares of income. Bivariate profit analysis of participation shows that in Uganda female heads of household and in Ghana women in general are significantly more likely than men to participate in non-farm activities and less likely to participate in agriculture.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2367.

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Date of creation: 31 Aug 2000
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2367
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  1. Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 1995. "Rural nonfarm employment : a survey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1463, The World Bank.
  2. Rosenhouse, S., 1989. "Identifying The Poor," Papers 58, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  3. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Mazumdar, Dipak & Xiao Ye, 1998. "The structure and determinants of inequality and poverty reduction in Ghana, 1988-92," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1998, The World Bank.
  4. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 2002. "Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Land in Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(2), pages 339-63, January.
  5. Behrman, Jere R. & Wolfe, Barbara L., 1984. "Labor force participation and earnings determinants for women in the special conditions of developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-3), pages 259-288.
  6. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Haddad, Lawrence James & Peña, Christine, 1995. "Gender and poverty," FCND discussion papers 9, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Reardon, Thomas & Taylor, J. Edward, 1996. "Agroclimatic shock, income inequality, and poverty: Evidence from Burkina Faso," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 901-914, May.
  8. Ranis, Gustav & Stewart, Frances, 1993. "Rural nonagricultural activities in development : Theory and application," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 75-101, February.
  9. Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
  10. Louat, F. & Grosh, M.E. & Van Der Gaag, J., 1993. "Welfare Implications of Female Headship in Jamaican Households," Papers 96, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  11. Lanjouw, Peter, 1998. "Ecuador's rural nonfarm sector as a route out of poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1904, The World Bank.
  12. Appleton, Simon, 1996. "Women-headed households and household welfare: An empirical deconstruction for Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(12), pages 1811-1827, December.
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