Migration and non farm activities as income diversification strategies: the case of Northern Ghana
Environmental changes affect the livelihood of the rural population. This is especially true for those households who mainly rely on farming for their subsistence. In Northern Ghana, during the last two decades, soil erosion, the increasing unpredictability of the rains and the raise in the population size - with the ensuing pressure on the land - contributed to make people even more vulnerable to environmental conditions. These factors - together with the adverse market conditions for the local produce and the neglect of the region in the design of adjustment policies - pushed rural population towards income generating activities alternative to farming (i.e. migration and non farm activities). In this paper, we use a multivariate analysis to explore the determinants of income diversification from a household perspective. We find that non agricultural activities represent an option that better-off households - and communities - can resort to, in order to overcome the difficulties of the agricultural sector; while out-rural seasonal migration is emerging as a coping strategy adopted by poor households to meet their basic needs, and it is unlikely to improve their socioeconomic condition in the long run.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +39 055 2759582
Web page: http://www.disei.unifi.it/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Flore Gubert, 2002.
"Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali),"
Oxford Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 267-287.
- Gubert, Flore, 2002. "Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali)," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10842, Paris Dauphine University.
- Corral, Leonardo & Reardon, Thomas, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Incomes in Nicaragua," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 427-442, March.
- de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Zhu, Nong, 2005.
"The Role of Non-Farm Incomes in Reducing Rural Poverty and Inequality in China,"
Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series
qt7ts2z766, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Zhu, Nong, 2005. "The role of non-farm incomes in reducing rural poverty and inequality in China," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1001, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Quizon, Jaime & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Non-agricultural earnings in peri-urban areas of Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 385-403, August.
- Lopez, Ramon, 2003. "The Policy Roots of Socioeconomic Stagnation and Environmental Implosion: Latin America 1950-2000," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 259-280, February.
- Mendola, Mariapia, 2008.
"Migration and technological change in rural households: Complements or substitutes?,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 150-175, February.
- Mariapia MENDOLA, 2005. "Migration and technological change in rural households: complements or substitutes?," Departmental Working Papers 2005-15, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
- Escobal, Javier, 2001. "The Determinants of Nonfarm Income Diversification in Rural Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 497-508, March.
- J. Edward Taylor & Antonio Yunez-Naude, 2000. "The Returns from Schooling in a Diversified Rural Economy," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 287-297.
- Berdegue, Julio A. & Ramirez, Eduardo & Reardon, Thomas & Escobar, German, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 411-425, March.
- Jonathan Morduch & Terry Sicular, 2002.
"Rethinking Inequality Decomposition, With Evidence from Rural China,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(476), pages 93-106, January.
- Jonathan Morduch & Terry Sicular, 1998. "Rethinking Inequality Decomposition, with Evidence from Rural China," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1831, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Winters, Paul & Davis, Benjamin & Corral, Leonardo, 2002. "Assets, activities and income generation in rural Mexico: factoring in social and public capital," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 27(2), August.
- Hausman, Jerry & McFadden, Daniel, 1984.
"Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model,"
Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1219-40, September.
- D. McFadden & J. Hausman, 1981. "Specification Tests for the Multinominal Logit Model," Working papers 292, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Adams, Richard H. Jr., 2006. "Remittances and poverty in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3838, The World Bank.
- Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
- Rwelamira, Juliana K. & Phosa, M.M. & Makhura, Moraka T. & Kirsten, Johann F., 2000. "Poverty and inequality profile of households in the Northern Province of South Africa," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 39(4), December.
- Paul Winters & Benjamin Davis & Leonardo Corral, 2002.
"Assets, Activities and Income Generation in Rural Mexico: Factoring in social and public capital,"
02-05, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Winters, Paul & Davis, Benjamin & Corral, Leonardo, 2002. "Assets, activities and income generation in rural Mexico: factoring in social and public capital," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(2), pages 139-156, August.
- Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin & Corral, Leonardo, 2001. "Assets, Activities and Income Generation in Rural Mexico: Factoring in Social and Public Capital," Working Papers 12898, University of New England, School of Economics.
- Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
- Davis, Benjamin & Covarrubias, Katia & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Winters, Paul C. & Carletto, Calogero & Quinones, Esteban & Zezza, Alberto & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2007.
"Rural Income Generating Activities: A Cross Country Comparison,"
106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France
7913, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Benjamin Davis & Paul Winters & Gero Carletto & Katia Covarrubias & Esteban Quinones & Alberto Zezza & Kostas Stamoulis & Genny Bonomi & Stefania DiGiuseppe, 2007. "Rural Income Generating Activities; A Cross Country Comparison," Working Papers 07-16, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Deirdre N. McCloskey & Stephen T. Ziliak, 1996. "The Standard Error of Regressions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 97-114, March.
- Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
- Elbers, Chris & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "Intersectoral Transfer, Growth, and Inequality in Rural Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 481-496, March.
- Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:frz:wpaper:wp2008_16.rdf. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Giorgio Ricchiuti)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.