Income Diversification and Poverty in a Growing Agricultural Economy: The Case of Ghana
This paper analyses changes in income portfolios of rural households and its determinants for the case of Ghana in the 1990s. Our analysis shows that, contrary to common beliefs, rural Ghana has seen major economic transformation, as households increasingly diversify their livelihoods by both increased migration and more local non-farm employment. These diversification decisions seem to be driven to a large extent by desperation rather than new opportunities, in particular with regard to migration. Low-income households increase their income share in particular from local non-farm activities through more participation while returns to diversifying activities stagnate or even decrease. Therefore households with a low non-labour asset-base are increasingly diversified and poor. In contrast, asset-rich households are more successful at either diversifying or specialising in those activities the household is relatively good at. They also tend to benefit more from agricultural growth.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Kiellinie 66, D-24105 Kiel|
Phone: +49 431 8814-1
Fax: +49 431 8814528
Web page: http://www.ifw-kiel.de/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Escobal, Javier, 2001. "The Determinants of Nonfarm Income Diversification in Rural Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 497-508, March.
- Frank Ellis & H Ade Freeman, 2004. "Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction Strategies in Four African Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(4), pages 1-30.
- Thomas Reardon & Eric Crawford & Valerie Kelly, 1994.
"Links Between Nonfarm Income and Farm Investment in African Households: Adding the Capital Market Perspective,"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1172-1176.
- Reardon, Thomas A. & Crawford, Eric W. & Kelly, Valerie, 1994. "Links Between Nonfarm Income and Farm Investment in African Households: Adding the Capital Market Perspective," Staff Papers 201191, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
- Tomoya Matsumoto & Yoko Kijima & Takashi Yamano, 2006. "The role of local nonfarm activities and migration in reducing poverty: evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(s3), pages 449-458, November.
- Bloom, David E & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 1998. "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(3), pages 419-455, September.
- David E. Bloom & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1997. "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia," NBER Working Papers 6268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Frank Ellis, 2000. "The Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 289-302.
- Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
- Lay, Jann & M'Mukaria, George Michuki & Omar Mahmoud, Toman, 2007. "Boda-bodas rule: Non-agricultural activities and their inequality implications in Western Kenya," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 6543, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Jann Lay & George Michuki M’Mukaria & Toman Omar Mahmoud, 2007. "Boda-bodas Rule: Non-agricultural Activities and Their Inequality Implications in Western Kenya," GIGA Working Paper Series 48, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
- Lay, Jann & M'Mukaria, George Michuki & Omar Mahmoud, Toman, 2007. "Boda bodas rule: Non-agricultural activities and their inequality implications in Western Kenya," Kiel Working Papers 1314, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Lay, Jann & M'Mukaria, George Michuki & Omar Mahmoud, Toman, 2007. "Boda-bodas rule: Non-agricultural activities and their inequality implications in Western Kenya," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Göttingen 2007 20, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Stefan Dercon, 2002. "Income Risk, Coping Strategies, and Safety Nets," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 141-166, September.
- Stefan Dercon, 2000. "Income risk, coping strategies and safety nets," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-26, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Dercon, Stefan, 2002. "Income Risk, Coping Strategies and Safety Nets," WIDER Working Paper Series 022, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Dercon, Stefan, 1998. "Wealth, risk and activity choice: cattle in Western Tanzania," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 1-42, February.
- Stefan Dercon, 1996. "Wealth, risk and activity choices: cattle in Western Tanzania," CSAE Working Paper Series 1996-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Lykke E. Andersen & Bent Jesper Christensen & Oscar Molina, 2005. "The Impact of Aid on Recipient Behavior: A Micro-Level Dynamic Analysis of Remittances, Schooling, Work, Consumption, Investment and Social Mobility in Nicaragua," Development Research Working Paper Series 02/2005, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
- J. Edward Taylor & Scott Rozelle & Alan deBrauw, 1999. "Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-291, May.
- Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, P. B. R. & Reardon, Thomas, 2002. "Strategies for stimulating poverty-alleviating growth in the rural nonfarm economy in developing countries:," EPTD discussion papers 92, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Thomas Reardon & J. Edward Taylor & Kostas Stamoulis & Peter Lanjouw & Arsenio Balisacan, 2000. "Effects of Non-Farm Employment on Rural Income Inequality in Developing Countries: An Investment Perspective," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 266-288.
- Marrit van den Berg & Girma Earo Kumbi, 2006. "Poverty and the rural nonfarm economy in Oromia, Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(s3), pages 469-475, November.
- Islam, Nurul, 1997. "The nonfarm sector and rural development," 2020 vision briefs 47, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:39907. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.